Following extreme trauma, the body would use which TCA intermediate to replace lost heme?

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by mental confusion, amnesia (a permanent gap in memory), and impaired short-term memory. Which of the following enzymes would have reduced function due to this disorder?

Alcoholics typically have markedly diminished function of pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase due to decreased dietary absorption of:

A patient comes to your office with kidney and liver failure. You suspect that methylmalonic acidemia might be their diagnosis which would mean that they are likely deficient in which of the following enzymes?

Which of the following is a anapleurotic reaction that occurs in the TCA cycle?

Which of the following is true regarding succinate dehydrogenase?

What unique property of non-alpha tocopherols makes them an essential part of a good diet?

When there is a bloodborne infection, cells of the immune system produce vast amounts of nitric oxide to destroy the pathogen. This dilates blood vessels and can cause blood pressure to plummet – a condition called septic shock. Which of the following is an additional reason for why an accumulation of NO could be dangerous?

Damage to the ETC by means of cyanide poisoning would lead to leakage of electrons through which channels?

Ischemic strokes occur when the arteries to your brain become narrowed or blocked, causing severely reduced blood flow. Which of the following best describes how a patient’s ETC would be affected if they were experiencing a stroke?

As a third year medical student, your resident shows you a patient file showing a confirmed diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease, which is caused by an enzyme mutation in NOX-2. Where is this enzyme located that it would lead to symptoms associated with this condition?

You are on rotations in an underserved primary care clinic when you come across a patient who can’t stop talking about the importance of antioxidants. They tell you that they researched it on “the Google machine” and that they know all there is to know about antioxidants. When asked, the patient revealed that they’ve been taking Vitamin E for the past 5 years in order to rid their body of reactant radicals. What should you tell them?

You are doing clinical rotations in the Emergency Department when a patient comes in who had overdosed on Aspirin. Their symptoms include hyperventilation, vomiting, dehydration, double vision, fever, and feeling faint. A resident asks you to explain the reasoning for why this patient is exhibiting a fever. What are you going to tell them?

Hemochromatosis is a disease in which too much iron builds up in your body. The fenton reaction explains why this buildup of iron can be so dangerous. Which of the following best describes the Fenton reaction?

Which of the following is considered to be the most dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS)?

The legend of vampires is believed to have stemmed from individuals who had the disease porphyria which can often include symptoms such as sensitivity to sunlight which can be treated with exogenous blood ingestion. Deficiency in which TCA cycle intermediate can lead to porphyria?

Veronica suffers from anorexia nervosa causing her to have low vitamin B1 levels. Which of the following coenzymes related to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would she have trouble synthesizing?

Isocitrate dehydrogenase is the TCA enzyme responsible for the oxidative decarboxylation of Isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. In IDH mutations, mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase additionally reduces α-ketoglutarate to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-DHG). How does this mutant TCA oncometabolite compromise cellular integrity that potentially leads to cancer?
Fumaric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarate hydratase (fumarase), which causes a deficiency of malate. What effect would this have on the production of ATP?

Fumaric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarate hydratase (fumarase), which causes a deficiency of malate. What effect would this have on the production of ATP?

Which of the following enzymes reduce a vitamin B2 derivative through their enzymatic activity in the TCA cycle?

Which of the following below contains the three enzymes that produce NADH during the TCA Cycle?

Molly’s pediatrician told her that she could give acetaminophen to her 6 month old for fevers. She didn’t have any acetaminophen so she gave her baby baby aspirin which she thought would be okay because it had the word baby in the name. Which of the following explains what would happen?

In the early 1960’s the benefits of Vitamin E were discovered and doctors started prescribing it as a pill to virtually everyone. Which of the following explains why this was not effective in preventing many of the diseases that natural vitamin E had been seen to prevent?

In most infections (especially bacterial), neutrophils are characterized as the first responders as they often the first leukocyte to be elevated and attempt to resolve the infection. Neutrophils are also characterized as phagocytes which means they ingest their targets and then fuse them with lysosome to degrade them. Phagocytes also implement reactive oxygen species is order to damage and destroy their ingested targets. Which NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme is found in these types of cells?

Nitric oxide is created in endothelial cells of blood vessels when acetylcholine binds to its G protein coupled receptor. What enzyme will the G alpha subunit activate after acetylcholine has bound?

Kevin wanted to look cool when he went to his first rave festival, so he took amphetamines that he got from the sketchy looking man in the bathroom line. Unfortunately they were laced with MPP+ and Kevin woke up confused in the hospital with tremors in his hand, stiff muscles, and feeling very fatigued. Which of the following explains his symptoms?

People suffering from Crohn Disease are frequently deficient in many vitamins including Selenium due to their inability to absorb vitamins despite their consumption. Which of the following would be affected by a selenium deficiency?

People with hemolytic anemia have problems reducing glutathione. Hemolytic anemia results in the rupture of red blood cells. Which of the following would NOT be a problem for people with this disease? 

In the very young and the elderly, it is common to be deficient in the various B vitamins. If one of these individuals is deficient in both cobalamin and pyroxidine, they will get a toxic buildup of which product?

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