Mediastinum, Pericardium & Heart

Mediastinum, Pericardium & Heart

Which of the following correctly identifies the following structures in the correct order?


A 24 y/o male was in a car accident and was unfortunately pronounced dead on scene. Autopsy reveals a compression fracture damaging spinal nerves C3, C4, & C5. Which of the following nerves were most likely responsible for the cause of death?


While dissecting the posterior mediastinum, you find a structure on the anterior surface of the vertebral bodies between the thoracic aorta and the azygos being, running superiorly and inferiorly. What was the most likely structure found.


The following picture shows a CT image at the level of the superior mediastinum. Which of the following correctly labels #4?  


A 78-year old patient presents with an advanced cancer in the posterior mediastinum. The surgeons are in a dilemma as to how to manage the condition. Which of the following structures is most likely damaged?


The presence of a retrosternal goiter is an indication for which of the following mediastinal lesions?


Ebstein’s anomaly, a rare congenital defect, which may lead to enlargement of the heart or even heart failure. Which of the following defects would cause this disorder?


Where is the ideal location to auscultate the mitral valve?


The interventricular sulcus demarcates the boundary between the left and right ventricles. Which vessels can be found together along the posterior interventricular sulcus?


Pacemaker cells are specialized cardiomyocytes that create electrical impulses (action potentials) within the heart. These pacemaker cells are connected to neighboring contractile cells, which enable them to locally depolarize adjacent cells. What structure is responsible for this communication between pacemaker cells and the nearby contractile cells?


Cardiac tamponade is a serious medical condition in which blood or fluids fill the pericardial cavity. This places extreme pressure on your heart. In these cases, pericardiocentesis must be performed to relieve the pressure. Which of the following is the correct location for where pericardiocentesis must be performed?

You are on rotations when an attending asks you if you would like to scrub in for surgery involved coronary artery bypass grafting. While in surgery, you ask the surgeon where the transverse pericardial sinus is located. But instead of telling you, the surgeon decides to showing you by slipping his index finger through the sinus. Which of the following best represents where the surgeon’s index finger is located?

Which of the following correctly lists the layers associated with the heart from most superficial to most deep?

Your patient who came in following a myocardial infarction has been scheduled for a triple coronary bypass surgery. Which three coronary arteries are being surgically altered in this procedure?

A baby was born with a congenital defect in which its foramen ovale was still open after birth. What defect would this be characterized as?

Your patient comes in with chest pain and there is cause that it may be a heart attack. What vein runs alongside the artery that is most likely to be occluded?

While performing a pericardiocentesis in your very first clinical rotation the attending ask you what an alternative approach would be to the procedure, rather than entering “through the 5th or 6th intercostal space, proximal to the sternum”. You respond by telling him which of the following?

Which of the following structures would you expect to find in the anterior mediastinum?

After an acute myocardial infarction some patients will develop a murmur that they didn’t previously have. Which of the following is a potential reason as to why this is?

Walter is in the ER with chest pain from a possible myocardial infarction and claims that he has shooting pains down his left arm. Which of the following explain this?

In which structure would you find deoxygenated blood from the entire body?

In which layer of the heart is the conduction system?

A problem in the maturation of the pleuropericardial membrane is a defect that is not compatible with life. This is because the pleuropericardial membrane...

A baby is born with patent fossa ovalis meaning that their fossa ovalis did not fully fuse. What problems would you expect this child to have if left untreated?

The circumflex artery has an almost complete occlusion. Which of the following anastomoses ensures that the left atrium is still receiving adequate blood flow?

After running from a vicious chiwawa, which of the following is triggering your SA node to decrease your heart rate back to normal?

In the event of observing a bull charge towards you in a closed-off alleyway, you notice your heart rate has started to increase. Which of the following would you expect to be involved in signaling for this physiological event?

Chris is a patient of yours that has recently suffered from an aneurysm is his ascending aorta. Which of the following anatomical factors makes it more likely for a patient to have such an event?

Which of the following is true regarding the thymus?

Which of the following is the most anterior?

While obtaining a history from a new patient of yours, you ask about any prior medical history. They state that they had an aortic coarctation 1 year earlier. What would be the most probable location of such pathology?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.