Human Development

Human Development

Which of the following is NOT true regarding organogenesis?

A spontaneously aborted fetus was found to have malformations in the development of the primordial heart and serous membranes of the pericardium and pleura. A defect is expected to have occurred in which of the following germ layers?

Sclerotome differentiate to form bones, cartilage, and tendon. From which mesodermal layer do sclerotomes arise?


This is the most common form of gestational trophoblastic disease.  It is characterized by trophoblastic hyperplasia, villous edema, and the absence of embryo. This is the result of fertilization of an empty oocyte by a single sperm with duplication of paternal material.  What is this referred to as?


A woman, approximately 2 weeks pregnant, who had just missed her menstrual period was concerned that a glass of wine she had consumed the week before may have harmed her embryo. What would you tell your patient about Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by environmental teratogens?


An embryo is visualized possessing midgut herniation, long upper limbs and webbed fingers. A crown to rump measurement of 20 mm is observed. What is the approximate age of the fetus?

Delilah just found out she’s pregnant. She has struggled with migraines since college and was put on Depakote, a valproic acid derivative. Her doctor tells her that she can no longer take this medication. Which of the following is an explanation as to why?

Janis went into her OBGYN after getting a positive pregnancy test. Her hCG levels were elevated but a transvaginal ultrasound did not show an embryo. Upon further examination, a hydatidiform mole was discovered. How did this happen?

A mother brings her baby to the clinic that you are working at. You take note of the fact that the baby displays thin lip, flat nose bridge, and a short nose. Following your observations, if the baby has fetal alcohol syndrome, what is the time period during which it was most likely exposed to ethanol?

Which of the following happens during week two of human development?

Cleft lip is a common craniofacial defect in which the roof of the mouth and  the lip does not fully fuse. Although it is easily identifiable appearance-wise it generally is asymptomatic. Which layer of the trilaminar disc is affected by this defect?

You and a classmate know that the bladder arises from the mesodermal layer of the embryo but are arguing over which division it comes from. Which of the following is the correct origin of the bladder?

Defective enamel development can be the result of an inherited condition called amelogenesis imperfecta, or congenital enamel hypoplasia, which is estimated to affect about 1 in 14,000 people in the United States. This condition can also cause unusually small teeth and a variety of dental problems. Which layer of  the trilaminar disc is affected by this defect?

The lining of the bronchi allows for the exchange of oxygen across the membrane through the function of epithelial cells. Which of the following is the origin of this layer?

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