Epithelium, Glands, & Skin Histology Published on August 30, 2020 by ehudspeth Epithelium, Glands, & Skin Histology The below image shows a pathological slide taken from the epididymis. Which of the following best describes the structure that the arrow is pointing to? Cilia Stereocilia Microvilli Microcilia None of the above Primary cilitary dyskinesia, also called immotile ciliary syndrome, is a rare, autosomal recessive genetic disorderthat causes defects in the action of cilia. Which of the following is a NOT a consequence of this disease? Dextrocardia Reduced ability to absorb nutrients in the jejunum No mucus removal from lungs Infertility Impaired development of skull sinuses A patient presents to the clinic with a painful fever blister on his right toe. The doctor explains that if this continued, it would produce a protective thickening or hardening of the outer epithelium layers known as a callus. The doctor explains to the shadowing resident that this blister arose from one of the epidermal layers, which is a deep, single layer of cells that separates the dermis from the epidermis. Which of the following best describes this layer of cells? Stratum corneum Stratum basale Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum lucidum The integumentary system is very essential in preventing water loss from the body, which would cause severe dehydration. One of the epidermal layers of the skin, the stratum granulosum, consists of 2 types of specific granules, each with a very important role. Which of the following is a lipid-rich structure located in the stratum granulosum that makes the epidermis impermeable to water, thus preventing dehydration? Tonofibrils Keratohyaline Lamellar granules Dermal papillae Filaggrin What is the most appropriate diagnosis for someone with a congenital tyrosinase defect resulting in hypopigmentation of the skin? Hyperhidrosis Albinism Vitiligo Lentino senilis Ephelides The 5 layers of the epidermis consist of stratified squamous keratinized epithelium consisting of keratinocytes as well as many other cells. Some of the cells give rise to skin color, others are necessary for light touch, and some serve in immune function. These cells that assist in immunity are known as antigen presenting cells, and are made in the bone marrow, and then travel to the epidermis. They leave the epidermis and bind, process, and present antigens to T lymphocytes in the lymph nodes. Which of the following is most likely the cell type being described? Merkel cells Melanocytes B cells Langerhans cells Keratinocytes Identify the structure indicated by the crudely drawn arrow. Sebaceous Gland Eccrine Gland Merkel Disc Arrector Pili Muscle Internal Root Sheath A patient comes to your office with a bladder infection. While performing your routine examination you notice that the patient is unable to sense coarse touch, pressure, and vibrations. You believe that this may be indicative of a defect in their: Meissner corpuscles Pacinian corpuscles Krause end bulbs Ruffini corpuscles Merkel cells After a long white coat weekend filled with family fun and studying, ARCOM students arrive at school Monday morning to find that their beloved coffee maker has been stolen! The security staff suspect an inside job as all of the cameras in the atrium were conveniently sabotaged. Which of the following anatomical features would be most helpful in allowing the security staff to narrow down a list of suspects: Tonofibrils Dermatoglyphs Extensor Retinaculum Ephelis Lamellar Granules An unlabeled tissue sample slide was found as seen above. Where in the body could this have come from? Dorsum of hand Fingernail Bladder Plantar surface of foot Cornea Ta mako is a traditional Maori tattooing practice in which deep cuts are incised and then a chisel is dipped into pigment and tapped into cuts. This process leaves the tattoos with textured grooves instead of smooth skin seen in traditional tattooing. In which layer does this pigment reside? Subcutaneous Papillary dermis Reticular dermis Stratum basale Stratum spinosum As we age, type I collagen in which layer of skin begins to break down causing skin to lose its elasticity and become wrinkled? Papillary layer of dermis Reticular layer of dermis Stratum spinosum of epidermis Stratum corneum of epidermis Stratum granulosum of epidermis Mutations in the gene OCA2 cause an autosomal recessive disorder that affects tyrosinase. Which of the following would you expect a patient with this mutation to present with? Excessive pigmentation Lack of melanocytes Increased risk of blindness Decreased risk of melanoma Severe skin flaking Morphea is a form of localized scleroderma where waxy patches of varying sizes appear on the skin with thickened skin below. The skin in these areas are not able to feel a bug land on them. Which of the following mechanoreceptors is affected in morphea? Meissner Corpuscles Pacinian Corpuscles Krause end bulbs Ruffini Corpuscles Lamellated Corpuscles Which of the following is a difference between eccrine and apocrine sweat glands? Eccrine are found in the armpits and genitalia whereas apocrine is found all over the body Eccrine are simple cuboidal whereas apocrine are stratified cuboidal Eccrine receive cholinergic fibers whereas apocrine are innervated by adrenergic nerve fibers. Eccrine open onto the skin surface whereas apocrine open into a lumen within the body Eccrine sweat glands utilize holocrine secretion whereas apocrine sweat glands utilize apocrine secretion Epidermolysis bullosa is a disease that causes hemidesmosomes to break down causing formation of blisters and sloughing of skin. Which of the following stains would allow pathologists to see the hemidesmosomes? Hematoxylin/Eosin Toluidine Blue Periodic Acid Schiff Osmium tetroxide Masson’s Trichrome Heavily glycosylated proteins would be expected to be released from which of the following? Holocrine Glands Apocrine Glands Mucosal Merocrine Glands Serous Merocrine Glands Sweat Glands Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) often produce an increase in respiratory mucous due to a genetic disorder and increased chloride ion pumping into the extracellular fluid. An increase in this respiratory mucous makes it difficult for which of the following structures to function properly? Microvilli Stereocilia Cilia Flagella All of the above While performing a physical exam on your patient you notice what appears to be a bruise under the patient’s nail. The patient doesn’t remember any trauma that occurred to the phalange. You decide to trephinate it. It bleeds, but does not clear. This is most likely which of the following? Indication of subungual hematoma Indication of subungual melanoma Indication of kidney problems Indication of liver disease Indication of heavy metal poisoning Rachel comes in to your office saying that almost everything she is eating is either giving her diarrhea or making her constipated. She has lost almost 15 pounds this month without trying. A blood test confirms that she has celiac disease. Why would changing her diet help to alleviate her symptoms? The cilia in her digestive tract are unable to move the types of food that she is consuming causing damage, so changing her diet would help with repairing the cilia The microvilli were unable to absorb the foods that she was consuming, but after a week of a changed diet she should have new microvilli that has replaced the non-functioning microvilli. The microvilli in her digestive tract are unable to move the types of food that she is consuming causing damage, so changing her diet would help with repairing the microvilli The cilia were unable to absorb the foods that she was consuming, but after a week of a changed diet she should have new microvilli that has replaced the non-functioning cilia Medications work by being able to get into the bloodstream, however many of these drugs would be lethal if they were to cross the blood-brain barrier. Which of the following junctions makes it so that these drugs cannot affect the integrity of the brain? Adherent junctions Desmosome Hemidesmosomes Tight junctions Gap Junctions Pemphigus foliaceus is a dyshessive skin disorder caused by an autoimmune disease in which IgG autoantibodies from patients recognize desmogleins (Dsg), which are cadherin-type cell–cell adhesion molecules found in which of the following junctions? Zonula adherens Macula adherens Hemidesmosome Tight junction Gap junctions Time is Up!