Cell Death/Differentiation and the Published on August 30, 2020 by ehudspeth Cell Death/Differentiation and the Molecular Basis of Cancer After a routine follow-up visit, your patient presents you with information regarding a new stem cell therapy for DM Type I that they saw on Doctor Oz using earlobe cartilage as a stem cell precursor. As a DM Type I patient, they intrigued and clearly fixated on this new therapy as a way to cure their life-long disease. As an osteopathic physician trained in bioethical practices and well-versed in current stem cell literature, you politely inform your patient that: Only stem cell therapy derived from skin fibroblasts and driven to the iPS cell state by the core trio are considered legitimate therapies approved by the FDA for use in the U.S. Although questionable, SC therapy derived from ear cartilage that undergoes the appropriate processing are FDA approved as the infancy of this therapy has not yet been proven as detrimental to patient health beyond a reasonable doubt. The only stem cell-based products that are FDA-approved for use in the U.S. consist of hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from cord blood. No form of stem cell-based products are FDA-approved as the infancy of this technology negates it from being a legitimate therapy until epidemiological methods have been used to compile and analyze the current data. Which of the following is a difference between necrosis and apoptosis? Apoptosis is cell death whereas necrosis is cell resurrection Apoptosis occurs with individual cells whereas necrosis occurs with multiple cells Necrosis requires a signal whereas apoptosis occurs on its own Necrosis is programmed cell death whereas apoptosis occurs because of injury or disease Necrosis occurs because of stress whereas apoptosis is a natural part of the cell cycle A patient comes in complaining of pain in their lower abdomen. Blood tests are ordered and show an increase in white blood cells. A CT scan reveals a tumor in their small intestine. Which of the following enzymes involved in the WNT pathway would you expect to see a mutation in? Frizzled Groucho Axin β-cantenin Slug A tissue sample from an unknown skin lesion is analyzed microscopically and enzymatically to determine whether or not necrosis has taken place. Which of the following scenarios is indicative of necrosis and not apoptosis? Immunofluorescence assay indicating phospholipid phosphatidylserine exposed on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. Free LDH present in the blood of the tissue sample. Segmented and condensed nuclear chromatin. Free IL-10 and TGF-β present in the blood of the tissue sample. Following an MI there is an increase in neutrophils that can be seen in tissue samples of myocardial tissue, which of the following explain this? An MI is due to an infection in the heart and these cells are trying to rid the body of the infection An MI causes death of myocardial tissues via apoptosis which causes inflammation as the cells rupture An MI causes death of myocardial tissues via necrosis which causes inflammation as the cells rupture This would only be seen in patients with an autoimmune disease in which their neutrophils attack healthy cells This would not occur. In order to test the efficacy of a novel drug therapy on diseased cardiomyocytes, you first want to determine if any unwanted side-effects occur in otherwise healthy cardiac cells. Fibroblasts donated to your research clinic from a healthy 30 year old male could be reprogrammed into iPS cells using which of the following combinations of transcription factors? c-Myc, Nanog, Oct4 Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc Sox2, Oct4, Axin Wnt, Oct4, Klf4 Klf4, Sox2, Oct4 Mesenchymal cells of the mesoderm are considered to be which of the following? Totipotent Pluripotent Multipotent Bipotent Unipotent The inner cell mass is considered to be pluripotent because it can become almost everything necessary to a developing embryo and future human. What is one structure that it can NOT become? Brain Epithelium of the respiratory tract Anterior Pituitary Gland Right Lobe of the Liver Chorion Your patient, a seasoned automotive mechanic, presents to your clinic with an abnormal growth on his forearm that occasionally bleeds and has persisted for the past 6 months. During the intake, he reveals to you that he has never felt the need to wear protective gloves while doing oil changes for the past 30 years. You biopsy the lesion and send it to pathology to rule out basal vs. squamous cell carcinoma. What abnormality in the internal cell death program would indicate that apoptosis has been compromised in this lesion? Cytochrome-c occupies all of the available sites of Apaf-1, activating the protein. p53, a tumor suppressor protein, binds to its response element within DNA and results in suppressed transcription of the target gene. Bax embeds itself in the mitochondrial membrane and facilitates the release of cytochrome-c. p53, a tumor suppressor protein, binds to its response element within DNA and induces transcription of the target gene. A recent discovery by John B Gourdon and Shinya Yamanaka showed that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent using a specific set of transcription factors that are able to upregulate and downregulate thousands of genes depending on their concentrations. Which of the following transcription factors is unable to reprogram cells by regulating epigenetics? ct4 Sox2 Klf4 c-Myc Nanog Time is Up!