BECOM-1 Exam 3 (2019)

Welcome to your BECOM-1 Exam 3 (2019)

Which of the following correctly matches the term to the definition?

 Which of the following enzymes is responsible for replacing the RNA bases of the primer with DNA bases?

Which eukaryotic DNA Polymerase is the “go to” for DNA repair?

Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat a variety of cancers by interfering with which protein involved in DNA replication?

How are the free 3’ end nucleotides protected from DNA repair proteins?

Which of the following single strand DNA repair mechanisms must occur during the S phase?

Individuals with BRCA1 mutations have a 55%-65% chance of developing breast cancer in their lifetimes and BRCA2 mutations have a 45% chance of developing breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are proteins involved in which DNA repair mechanism?

A defect in which of the following proteins would lead to dysfunctional Nonhomologous End Joining?

Cordycepin is an adenosine analog derived from a caterpillar fungi. It is being researched for its potential use as an anti-inflammatory drug. Cordycepin prevents/shortens the formation of a poly-A tail. This reduces the efficiency of mRNA cleavage and early transcription termination is observed. This would thus result in the inability to transcribe inflammatory genes. Which of the following processes would be affected by a cordycepin anti-inflammatory drug?

Apolipoprotein B-100 is a protein that is synthesised in the liver and is involved in the metabolism of lipids. This protein is also found in the intestines but the intestines are unable to metabolize lipids because the apolipoprotein-B has been truncated due to an RNA editing event. Which of the following changes would result in the trunctication of this protein?

Activation of which of the following would increase transcription?

DNA Methylation occurs on which base?

A patient with Non-hodgkins Lymphoma presents with worsening of her cancer that appears to have become resistant to the Methotrexate she has been taking. Which of the following is the most probable reason for this?

Activation of which of the following DNA response elements would lead to a decrease in Phosphoenol Pyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK)?

 How is it possible that the human genome contains 22,000 genes but is able to make over 100,000 different polypeptides?

Which of the following is the most critical to how bacterial ribosomes recognize a start codon?

A new antibiotic is being developed that targets a component of bacterial translation initiation. Which of the following could this drug target?

Which of the following antibiotics when given to a patient who does not have a bacterial infection, can actually cause harm to the patient based on its mechanism of action?

Which of the following antibiotics interferes with elongation of a polypeptide by blocking the export tunnel?

Which of the following antibiotics interferes with elongation of a polypeptide by inhibiting peptidyl transferase?

A combination of which of the following would cause gene transcription?

Which of the following lactose genes is constitutively active?

Which of following combinations would produce the most lac mRNA?

During the process of conjugation, which of the following is duplicated in a noncontinuous fashion?

Which of the following mechanisms of genetic transfer can create partial diploids?

Nondisjunction events can cause a multitude of genetic conditions like trisomies and monosomies. Errors in which step of cell division can cause these events?

Which of the following activation mutations on a protooncogene would result in a new/novel protein?

Which of the following cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) is properly matched with its cyclin?

Activation of a receptor tyrosine kinase by a growth factor is most likely to lead to which of the following?

Phosphorylation of MEK will lead to activation of which of the following?

Mutations or deletions in which of the following tumor suppressor genes is most likely to cause an increased risk in the most types of cancer?

Which of the following mutations in a tumor suppressor gene is most likely to lead to increased cell division?

Which of the following drugs/medications would be effective in treating both breast and prostate cancer?

Brenda is a 12 year old girl who was born with down syndrome caused by Robertsonsonian translocation. Which of the following is representative of her karyotype?

 John and his wife Kate have been trying to conceive for five years when they seek out your help as a genetic counselor. You discover it is a problem with John that is usually subclinical resulting in a male who is often tall with an IQ that is slightly below normal but for the most part is entirely normal. Which of the following syndromes is the most likely diagnosis?

Peyton was born with the karyotype 47, XXY. Which of the following disorders are they most likely to have?

 Bryson is found to have XY androgen insensitivity. Which of the following is a likely symptom of this?

Which of the following chromosomes is LEAST likely to have a viable trisomy?

A patient with down syndrome and their family were taken to a genetic counselor to better learn about the disease. After a karyotype is run on each member of the family it is discovered that the mother has a karyotype of 45 XX. Which of the following forms of down syndrome is the patient most likely to have?

Which of the following disorders/diseases still has no definitive mechanistic basis for why it occurs?

A patient is found to have a deletion in the AZF region of their Y chromosome. Which of the following conditions will this patient most likely exhibit?

A woman presents for fertility testing after struggling to get pregnant. She is below average in height and has normal cognitive function with no apparent learning disabilities. After running a few tests you learn that she is infirtle. Which sex chromosomal abnormlaity does she likely have?

Which of the following diseases could be associated with the pedigree below?

Which of the following diseases could be associated with the pedigree below?

Which of the following diseases could be associated with the above pedigree?

When looking back at a patient’s family tree she start to recognize a pattern concerning an illness that has popped up occasionally in her family. She realizes that it only appears to affect the men in her family and it doesn’t seem to appear in every generation. Which of the following types of inheritance patterns does this disease follow?

After finding out her older brother has huntington’s disease, a woman goes and gets tested for the number of CAG repeats in the allele. It is discovered that she has 38 CAG repeats in the allele. How should this woman feel about this information?

A young woman and her half brother (same mother) have both been diagnosed with Marfan’s syndrome while neither of their respective parents have the disorder. How is this most likely possible?

A mother with an abnormal mitochondrial genome will pass the manifested disease onto which of her children?

 A woman and her husband seek genetic counseling when they are ready to begin trying to get pregnant. The husband has an autosomal recessive condition that both the woman’s brother and father also have. The woman herself is unaffected. If the couple should choose to have a child, what is the probability that the child will be affected with the condition?

Errors in which of the following enzymes would lead to errors in methylation during replication?

If your parents somatic cells contain 1st generation imprints, then what generation imprints would be found in your child’s gametes?

Which of the following will lead to a change in expression of the imprinted genes?

Which of the following would lead to development of Silver-Russel Syndrome?

When an element blocks an enhancer and promoter from interacting when placed between them, this best represents which of the following?

An additional gain of IGF2 or loss of CDKN1C would result in which of the following diseases?

A deletion of 15q11-13 on the paternal chromosome would most likely result in which of the following diseases?

Loss of the UBE3A gene on the maternal chromosome would result in which of the following diseases?

Which of the following structures is the smallest?

Which of the following would be considered a regulatory protein?

Which of the following would be considered a structural protein?

Which of the following structures will decrease in size during muscle contraction?

Action potentials will have direct effects on which of the following?

Calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum will then go and bind to which of the following?

ATP is directly responsible for which of the following in skeletal muscle contraction?

Which of the following is responsible for restocking the sarcoplasmic reticulum with calcium?

Once you become a very rich doctor you decide to be shallow and marry a trophy husband/wife. When they are getting botox injection into their face, how is that affecting muscle contraction?

After all your years of hard work and making bank you decide to reward yourself with a trip to the beautiful wilds of South America. While hiking through the jungle you stumble upon some indiginous tribes in the area. They are not as happy to see you as you are to see them and decide to shoot you with arrows dipped in curare poison. In your last thoughts of life you remember that curare’s mechanism of action is which of the following?

Which of the following drugs would you give to a patient suffering from Myasthenia Gravis?

Dylan is an avid crossfitter. Today’s Halloween workout of the day includes holding heavy weights in front of his chest like Frankenstin and grunting like a true crossfitter. Which of the following allows him to hold these weight for a long period of time?

Paul was able to increase his deadlift by 15 lbs when he fixed his hand form from being flexed with his hands curled under as opposed to straight out under him. Which of the following properties of length-tension relationship explains why this is?

Which of the following explains why it is easier to lift a spoonful of ice cream to your mouth than it is to put the whole tub of ice cream to your face?

Which of the following determines the maximal velocity of muscle shortening?

When attempting to lift a full size car, which type of muscle contraction is most likely occurring?

During which of the following phases is more calcium pumped into the sarcoplasmic reticulum then being released by ryanodine channels?

Which of the following is best described as repeated contractions followed by some relaxation?

Which of the following combinations of muscle architecture would result in a muscle being the fastest and strongest?

Most of the energy that supplies sustained, long term contraction is derived from which of the following?

Which of the following would contribute LEAST to fatigue?

A person is found to have no available satellite cells. What would this person be unable to do in comparison to other individuals?

Usain bolt has decided to switch events and take his talents to marathon running. During his endurance training which of the following muscle fiber types is he attempting to develope more of?

Binding of Ne/E to β-adrenergic receptor activates adenylyl cyclase resulting in the formation of cAMP. In reference to calcium levels, explain how this process causes a change in blood volume through blood vessels?

The latch state phenomenon seen in smooth muscles is partially responsible for you not shitting yourself. Which of the following explains this phenomenon?

The dense bodies found in smooth muscle are the most similar to which of the following found in skeletal muscle?

Where are you most likely to find multiunit smooth muscle cells?

 Single unit smooth muscle is similar to cardiac muscle in which of the following ways?

 Which of the following are responsible for allowing extracellular calcium to enter into a smooth muscle cell?

Which of the following would prevent smooth muscle relaxation?

Plateaued action potentials in smooth muscle most resemble the actions potentials of which of the following?

Which of the following correctly identifies the relationship between contractility, afterload, force and velocity?

Digoxin is a medication given to patients with congestive heart failure. It works to increase contractility of the heart. What effect would this have on the heart?

Lucus was put on lisinopril to help lower his blood pressure. What effect would this have on cardiac output?

Palloidin is a toxin found in the death cap mushroom that is lethal. It works by binding actin filaments. Which of the following explains what happens as this toxin is absorbed in the liver?

Which two amino acids are cross linked by transglutaminase in the skin?

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