Anatomy Exam 2 (2019)

Anatomy Exam 2 (2019)

A patient comes in saying they can’t feel their hand. Due to a language barrier, they cannot articulate where their hand is numb. Upon physical examination, you note that they are able to grasp a paper between their first and second distal phalange but not between their third and fourth phalange. Which nerve are you concerned with?
An inability to feel the skin on the dorsal surface of the base of the thumb would result from which of the following?

During the first day of anatomy dissection, Dr. Throckmorton cut the tip of his finger requiring stitches. Which of the following explains why it bled like the dickens?

An inability to abduct the thumb would result from which of the following?

Which of the following is a cause of clubbed nails?

A T1 weighted MRI shows the following issue.  Which of the following actions would they not be able to do?

A patient presents to the ED after a game of intramural flag football and is unable to extend their DIP joint on their right 2nd finger. During their physical exam you also notice that they have blood visible beneath their nailbed. Which of the following injuries did they most likely sustain?

While performing a physical exam on your patient you notice what appears to be a bruise under the patient’s nail. The patient doesn’t remember any trauma that occurred to the phalange. You decide to trephinate it. It bleeds, but does not clear. This is most likely which of the following?

Delilah just found out she’s pregnant. She has struggled with migraines since college and was put on Depakote, a valproic acid derivative. Her doctor tells her that she can no longer take this medication. Which of the following is an explanation as to why?

Janis went into her OBGYN after getting a positive pregnancy test. Her hCG levels were elevated but a transvaginal ultrasound did not show an embryo. Upon further examination, a hydatidiform mole was discovered. How did this happen?

Which of the following happens during week two of human development?

You and a classmate know that the bladder arises from the mesodermal layer of the embryo but are arguing over which division it comes from. Which of the following is the correct origin of the bladder?

Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) often produce an increase in respiratory mucous due to a genetic disorder and increased chloride ion pumping into the extracellular fluid. An increase in this respiratory mucous makes it difficult for which of the following structures to function properly?

Medications work by being able to get into the bloodstream, however many of these drugs would be lethal if they were to cross the blood-brain barrier. Which of the following junctions makes it so that these drugs cannot affect the integrity of the brain?

Rachel comes in to your office saying that almost everything she is eating is either giving her diarrhea or making her constipated. She has lost almost 15 pounds this month without trying. A blood test confirms that she has celiac disease. Why would changing her diet help to alleviate her symptoms?

Pemphigus foliaceus is a dyshessive skin disorder caused by an autoimmune disease in which IgG autoantibodies from patients recognize desmogleins (Dsg), which are cadherin-type cell–cell adhesion molecules found in which of the following junctions?

Which of the following is the least stable joint?

While cheering, Kali is dropped from a stunt landing directly on her shoulder, which of the following is the MOST LIKELY injury?

A 12 year old male patient presents to the emergency department after following an ATV accident. Imaging confirms avulsion of the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The patient complains of paresthesia in the fifth digit and the medial half of the fourth digit. Which action of the thumb is most likely weakened or absent in this patient?

A patient presents to your clinic after a recent wrist injury and you notice they are able to hyper-abduct their wrist. What structures are likely to be involved in this injury?

Which of the following is NOT a function of the Sartoris?

Edna was carrying in her groceries when she slipped and fell on the ice hitting the posterolateral aspect of her hip and buttocks. She is unable to rotate her toes inward with her leg straight from a standing position. Which of the following muscles is likely injured?

Which of the quadriceps muscles has a primary function other than extension at the knee joint?

Which of the following is NOT a component of the Femoral Triangle?

Chloe suffers from chronic kidney infections usually brought about from UTIs. She usually gets Doribax, an IM-injected antibiotic, at the first sign of a UTI to prevent it from becoming a kidney infection. While at the doctor’s office, a new nurse is training and begins to prep the lower lateral quadrant of her left buttcheck when her trainer stops her. Why shouldn’t the shot be injected there?

Vivian is an avid rock-climber. While rappelling down, her cable was too loose causing her to rappel down very quickly. On her rapid dissent, she was punctured in her right gluteal region with a very sharp stick which went into the thickest part of her right glute about two inches. While in the ER, she is asked to stand on her left leg and her right hip veers up. Which of the following nerves did Vivian injure?

A patient comes into the ER and has reportedly injured his pudendal nerve. Your attending tells you that he is concerned for the injury but also other possible injuries in the roots in the Sacral Plexus. What roots might be of concern?

Respectively, which of the following muscle-nerve pairs is INCORRECT? 

Which of the following nerves is sensory only?

Which of the following muscles makes up a part of the floor for the popliteal fossa?

A blockage is discovered in the popliteal artery just after it has passed through the adductor hiatus. Which of the following blood vessels will receive blood and then be able to bypass the blockage to allow blood flow inferior to the knee?

A soccer player comes into the ED with pain in her posterior thigh after injuring herself in a game earlier that night. When looking at the patients MRI T2 scan you notice a large white area where she is feeling pain. What does the large white area represent?

The lining of the bronchi allows for the exchange of oxygen across the membrane through the function of epithelial cells. Which of the following is the origin of this layer?

A mother brings her baby to the clinic that you are working at. You take note of the fact that the baby displays thin lip, flat nose bridge, and a short nose. Following your observations, if the baby has fetal alcohol syndrome, what is the time period during which it was most likely exposed to ethanol?

Cleft lip is a common craniofacial defect in which the roof of the mouth and  the lip does not fully fuse. Although it is easily identifiable appearance-wise it generally is asymptomatic. Which layer of the trilaminar disc is affected by this defect?

Defective enamel development can be the result of an inherited condition called amelogenesis imperfecta, or congenital enamel hypoplasia, which is estimated to affect about 1 in 14,000 people in the United States. This condition can also cause unusually small teeth and a variety of dental problems. Which layer of  the trilaminar disc is affected by this defect?

A patient presents to the ED in severe distress after a ruptured aortic aneurysm. While rushing the patient to the OR you notice they are quite tall with very slender limbs and unusually long fingers. After looking at the patient’s chart, you’re not surprised to find out they have which of the following conditions?

Studies have found that pericyte loss in adults and aging brain can lead to neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Which of the following explain the cellular basis of this?

An unlabelled slide appears as above. Given that this is connective tissue, what is its most likely function?

Which of the following is derived from antigen-stimulated b-lymphocytes, primary producers of circulating antibodies and has a clock face nucleus?

A patient present after a motorcycle accident in which they injured their medial malleolus and the contents of the tarsal tunnel. Which of the following actions would this patient have reduced capability?

A patient presents with the inability to dorsiflex their foot. Which of the following nerves is most likely damaged?

Which of the following plantarflexion muscles is LEAST important in that action?

A Jones Fracture of the tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal would likely damage the tendon of which muscle?

Which of the following is true for both the hand and the foot?

Which of the following is innervated by the lateral plantar nerve?

Bethany was doing a fouetté turn when she lost her balance and fell onto the outside of her foot. She thought she had just twisted her ankle or sprained her foot, but after a week of it hurting decided to go to the clinic. Her doctor tells her that she has a Jones fracture. This means that she fractured which of the following?

After a pick up game of basketball over the weekend, Robert believes he has sprained his ankle. He is unable to rotate his foot in or out. Which type of sprain does he likely have?

An unlabeled tissue sample slide was found as seen above. Where in the body could this have come from?

Mutations in the gene OCA2 cause an autosomal recessive disorder that affects tyrosinase. Which of the following would you expect a patient with this mutation to present with?

As we age, type I collagen in which layer of skin begins to break down causing skin to lose its elasticity and become wrinkled?

Ta mako is a traditional Maori tattooing practice in which deep cuts are incised and then a chisel is dipped into pigment and tapped into cuts. This process leaves the tattoos with textured grooves instead of smooth skin seen in traditional tattooing. In which layer does this pigment reside?

Morphea is a form of localized scleroderma where waxy patches of varying sizes appear on the skin with thickened skin below. The skin in these areas are not able to feel a bug land on them. Which of the following mechanoreceptors is affected in morphea?

Which of the following is a difference between eccrine and apocrine sweat glands?

Epidermolysis bullosa is a disease that causes hemidesmosomes to break down causing formation of blisters and sloughing of skin. Which of the following stains would allow pathologists to see the hemidesmosomes?

Heavily glycosylated proteins would be expected to be released from which of the following?

A 13 year old boy in the 95th percentile for weight presents to your clinic limping and complaining of pain in his groin. Which of the following would you expect to see on his x-ray?

Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is avascular necrosis of the femoral head resulting from compromise of the blood supply to this area. Which of the following arteries would be affected?

Female sports players frequently laterally dislocate the patella. Which of the following is an explanation of why?

While performing an anterior drawer test on one of your patients you note that excessive movement is present. On that same patient you observe that there is a normal amount of “give” in the posterior drawer test. Which of the following ligaments might you expect to be damaged?

Which of the following could have caused the abnormality in the image below?

When attempting to do a thoracentesis in the 8th intercostal space, where will you anesthetize?

Which of the following rib abnormalities would be the most problematic?

The first rib is atypical in that it can be described as the broad and sharpest of the 12 ribs. It also is noted to have grooves for both which of the following?

Donald has bacterial bronchitis. This has caused an excess of non-serous fluid to build up in his lungs causing him tightness in his chest and a persistent productive cough. Which of the following categories can bronchitis be classified as?

Which of the following is an example of a parasympathetic function of the pulmonary plexus?

After running a marathon, Mary was in tripod position heavily breathing. Which of the following is ensuring that she is not rupturing a lung by overfilling it?

Which of the following would cause hilar lymphadenopathy?

Walter is in the ER with chest pain from a possible myocardial infarction and claims that he has shooting pains down his left arm. Which of the following explain this?

A problem in the maturation of the pleuropericardial membrane is a defect that is not compatible with life. This is because the pleuropericardial membrane...

While performing a pericardiocentesis in your very first clinical rotation the attending ask you what an alternative approach would be to the procedure, rather than entering “through the 5th or 6th intercostal space, proximal to the sternum”. You respond by telling him which of the following?

Which of the following structures would you expect to find in the anterior mediastinum?

Samuel presents to your clinic with a runny nose, sore throat, and cough. After running basic blood test you note that his eosinophil count is extremely elevated. What type of infection should be of primary concern?

While on your pathology rotation you are asked to observe a particular leukocyte that is noted to lack granules. Which of the following cells could you potentially be viewing?

What type of granulocyte is known as the “first responders” concerning infection sites and is expected to dye “neutral pink” when exposed to H&E staining?

A patient comes to your office after being exposed to poison ivy. Which of the following progenitor cells would you expect to be in excess in your patient?

Natalie has megaloblastic anemia due to her vegan lifestyle and lack of red meat over the past five years. Which of the following would you expect her to be elevated due to it not being utilized?

While playing with your new kitten, Dwight, he scratched you out of the blue for no reason, as kittens often do. Your hand starts bleeding. Which of the following parts of the body would you expect to ramp up its thrombopoietin production in response?

As an embryo develops it goes through the following phases of fetal hemopoiesis: 
  1. Hepatosplenothymic
  2. Medullolymphatic
  3. Pre-hepatic
  4. Medullary
Which of the following has the phases in the correct chronological order?
In which structure would you find deoxygenated blood from the entire body?
After an acute myocardial infarction some patients will develop a murmur that they didn’t previously have. Which of the following is a potential reason as to why this is?
A baby is born with patent fossa ovalis meaning that their fossa ovalis did not fully fuse. What problems would you expect this child to have if left untreated?

In which layer of the heart is the conduction system?

The circumflex artery has an almost complete occlusion. Which of the following anastomoses ensures that the left atrium is still receiving adequate blood flow?

After running from a vicious chiwawa, which of the following is triggering your SA node to decrease your heart rate back to normal?

In the event of observing a bull charge towards you in a closed-off alleyway, you notice your heart rate has started to increase. Which of the following would you expect to be involved in signaling for this physiological event?

Which of the following is the most anterior?

Which of the following is true regarding the thymus?

Chris is a patient of yours that has recently suffered from an aneurysm is his ascending aorta. Which of the following anatomical factors makes it more likely for a patient to have such an event?

While obtaining a history from a new patient of yours, you ask about any prior medical history. They state that they had an aortic coarctation 1 year earlier. What would be the most probable location of such pathology?

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