Anatomy Exam 2 (2018)

Anatomy Exam 2 (2018)

Which muscle of the forearm is colored in yellow?

Elite baseball pitchers can sometimes be forced out of a season due to a specific kind of radial nerve damage termed Posterior Interosseous Neuropathy (PIN). A sufferer from this would likely have diminished motor function for which muscle?

A patient comes to your office , complaining of severe right elbow pain.  Physical examination shows they have diminished function of their elbow extensors, but your examination rules out neurological damage. What is a likely diagnosis for this patient?

A patient with osteoarthritis walks into your office. Before your exam even starts you see her walking to the exam room and notice her hip dropping to one side. What nerve is injured?

An attending tries to embarrass you in front of a patient by asking you the best place to insert a needle when giving an intragluteal injection. But because you went to ARCOM, you can confidently say the needle should be placed:

A patient comes into your clinic complaining of dyspnea (difficulty breathing). You want to do some medical imaging to help your diagnosis so you decide to take an x-ray. You ask the patient to take a deep breath and then acquire the following image. What is the diagnosis?

Your friend tells you that they are worried because their physician diagnosed them with a supernumerary rib located at L1. They ask you what symptoms they should be expecting from this condition. What do you tell them?

Which of the following correctly describes the flow of blood from the aorta to the right anterior intercostal arteries?

A positive anterior drawer test is when the proximal head of a patient’s tibia can be pulled anteriorly on the femur, and the tibia moves anteriorly. Which structure must be damaged in order for the patient to elicit this movement?

The ankle is the most frequently injured major joint in the body. An ankle sprain is the most common type of ankle injury. A Pott Fracture-Dislocation occurs when the foot is forcibly ___________, resulting in both tibial and fibular fractures due to the strength of the ligaments attached to them.

You are doing clinical rotations when an 82 year old female patient comes into the emergency department complaining of severe right hip pain. You acquire the x-ray shown below. Due to the possibility of avascular necrosis, which of the following arteries are you most concerned about being damaged?

You are on rotations when an attending asks you to scrub in for an ACL repair surgery. In order to perform the surgery while also minimizing the loss of blood flow to the leg, the surgeon should ligate which of the following arteries?

Lindsey H., an uncoordinated OMS I student, is walking into lecture hall 2 for morning classes when she trips on the door frame and twists her ankle, forcing it to invert. Which of the following ligaments are you most concerned that Lindsey has probably torn?

A spontaneously aborted fetus was found to have malformations in the development of the primordial heart and serous membranes of the pericardium and pleura. A defect is expected to have occurred in which of the following germ layers?

An embryo is visualized possessing midgut herniation, long upper limbs and webbed fingers. A crown to rump measurement of 20 mm is observed. What is the approximate age of the fetus?

Which of the following is NOT true regarding organogenesis?

Lucas T.  comes into your clinic complaining of a potential rotator cuff injury after an intense softball game. Since you went to ARCOM, you know that the Supraspinatus is the most frequently injured rotator cuff muscle. You decide to first do an ultrasound on the anterior lateral aspect of the patient’s shoulder to examine the supraspinatus muscle and acquire the following image. Which of the following correctly represents the Supraspinatus muscle?

The following ultrasound image was acquired from the anterior aspect of a patient’s shoulder. Which structure is represented by the outline in blue?

You decide to practice surface anatomy with your good friend, Bobby G., who is conveniently shown below (he’s taken ladies!!). You are palpating along his sternal line when you come across a landmark located on the superior border of his manubrium. Since you have a strong knowledge of surface anatomy, you know that this landmark will align with which of the following vertebral bodies?

Lab tests reveal that your patient has low levels of the colony-stimulating factor erythropoeitin (Epo). Which CBC result would be consistent with this finding?

A patient comes into your office complaining of prolonged bleeding after they cut themselves while preparing dinner. You immediately consider that something must be wrong with their ability to clot/coagulate blood. If you are correct, what lab result would you most likely find?

A patient comes into your clinic with defective red bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells. You realize this condition can lead to Pancytopenia. What do you suspect this patient to have?

A CBC reveals depressed levels of monocytes, what would be the most effective course of treatment to boost the number of monocytes? Administration of:

A patient presents to your clinic complaining of numbness on the posterior side of the leg after being struck in the region during a football game. The patient is still capable of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion. What nerve that is most likely damaged?

A patient presents with bruising on the posterior thigh/gluteal region and severe pain upon extension of the hip. You take an x-ray and acquire the image shown below. Which of the following best describes the injury exhibited by the patient?

Which of the following is NOT a border of the popliteal fossa?

Chris F. is enjoying his Saturday afternoon lounging by the pool at the Residents. Unfortunately, he got a little over zealous and accidentally slipped getting into the pool. He hit the posterior side of his thigh on the concrete edge which subsequently damaged the common fibular portion of his sciatic nerve. Which of the following muscles would no longer be functional?  

A patient comes into the clinic complaining of pain along the medial aspect of their calf, foot, and ankle. Upon examination of their posterior knee you notice a large pulsating mass and suspect an aneurysm of the popliteal artery. Which of the following nerves is mostly likely being affected by this condition?

Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds the normal range. Which of the following infections would most likely result in eosinophilia?

The picture below shows a:  

You are on a surgical rotation when a resident asks you to run a CBC on a patient that has had a relatively recent lung transplant. Which of the following would indicate that the patient is at an increased risk for rejection of the donor tissue?

A patient comes into your clinic complaining of chronic fatigue. You decide to take a blood sample and see the following image under your microscope. What’s the diagnosis, doc?

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the spleen?


Which of the following correctly identifies the following structures in the correct order?


A 78-year old patient presents with an advanced cancer in the posterior mediastinum. The surgeons are in a dilemma as to how to manage the condition. Which of the following structures is most likely damaged?


While dissecting the posterior mediastinum, you find a structure on the anterior surface of the vertebral bodies between the thoracic aorta and the azygos being, running superiorly and inferiorly. What was the most likely structure found.


The presence of a retrosternal goiter is an indication for which of the following mediastinal lesions?


A 24 y/o male was in a car accident and was unfortunately pronounced dead on scene. Autopsy reveals a compression fracture damaging spinal nerves C3, C4, & C5. Which of the following nerves were most likely responsible for the cause of death?


The following picture shows a CT image at the level of the superior mediastinum. Which of the following correctly labels #4?  


Ebstein’s anomaly, a rare congenital defect, which may lead to enlargement of the heart or even heart failure. Which of the following defects would cause this disorder?


Where is the ideal location to auscultate the mitral valve?


The interventricular sulcus demarcates the boundary between the left and right ventricles. Which vessels can be found together along the posterior interventricular sulcus?


The below image shows a pathological slide taken from the epididymis. Which of the following best describes the structure that the arrow is pointing to?


Pacemaker cells are specialized cardiomyocytes that create electrical impulses (action potentials) within the heart. These pacemaker cells are connected to neighboring contractile cells, which enable them to locally depolarize adjacent cells. What structure is responsible for this communication between pacemaker cells and the nearby contractile cells?


Primary cilitary dyskinesia, also called immotile ciliary syndrome, is a rare, autosomal recessive genetic disorderthat causes defects in the action of cilia. Which of the following is a NOT a consequence of this disease?


Your friend from class seems to be experiencing some medical school syndrome and tells you that they have diagnosed themself with pleural mesothelioma. In order to put their mind at ease, you remind them that mesothelioma is a fairly rare cancer and that they would probably had to have been exposed to which of the following carcinogens?


This is the most common form of gestational trophoblastic disease.  It is characterized by trophoblastic hyperplasia, villous edema, and the absence of embryo. This is the result of fertilization of an empty oocyte by a single sperm with duplication of paternal material.  What is this referred to as?


Sclerotome differentiate to form bones, cartilage, and tendon. From which mesodermal layer do sclerotomes arise?


A woman, approximately 2 weeks pregnant, who had just missed her menstrual period was concerned that a glass of wine she had consumed the week before may have harmed her embryo. What would you tell your patient about Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by environmental teratogens?


Despite the recommendation of everyone ever, Angel S. is back doing crossfit. She trips doing box jumps and lands on her right abducted palmar hand. She is experiencing pain on the lateral side of her wrist, especially during radial deviation (abduction) and extension. She goes to the Emergency Department and they take x-ray shown below. Which of the following bones is fractured?


A student falls on the steps outside of ARCOM and catches themselves, fracturing their scaphoid bone. Which artery is most likely to be damaged with this injury?


A patient presents in your clinic with carpal tunnel syndrome complaining of difficulty performing delicate hand movements. Which intrinsic hand muscles would she exhibit weakness?


A man comes into your clinic after having his hand closed in a car door. After a series of neurological tests, the patient displays Froment’s sign, unable to hold a sheet of paper between his thumb and first finger. Froment’s sign displays damage to which nerve?


Which of the following is NOT a border of the femoral triangle?


While jogging down a poorly lit road, Ricky slipped on a wet spot and managed to severely tear his pectineus. Which actions will he now have difficulty performing?


After he fell off a roller coaster, Johnny broke every bone and tore nearly every nerve in his body. However, his femoral nerve remained unscathed and Johnny made a full recovery. Which muscle was still functional after the miraculous landing?


What disease is most likely indicated by this image?


Which of the following is NOT an associated symptom of Scleroderma?


All of the following are potential symptoms of Marfan syndrome EXCEPT:


Connective tissue principally arises from which of the following?


Connective tissue principally arises from which of the following?

Seth B. finally gained the courage to go back to the electric cowboy after his last encounter with the assailant who brutally stabbed him in the parking lot. Unfortunately, as Seth is walking through the parking lot this time he trips over the curb. In the process of doing this he damages the vessel and nerve lying lateral to his tibialis anterior muscle. Which nerve and artery are most likely damaged?
Damage to the superficial fibular nerve would lead to which of the following?
Which of the following correctly describes the order in which blood would flow from the aorta to the dorsalis pedis artery?
Tube thoracostomy is the insertion of a tube (chest tube) into the pleural cavity to drain air, blood, bile, pus, or other fluids. The tube is usually inserted in the fourth or fifth intercostal space in the mid-to-anterior axillary line. Which of the following layers of pleura must the chest tube penetrate in order to perform this procedure?

Thoracentesis is a procedure in which a needle is inserted into the pleural space between the lungs and the chest wall. This procedure is done to remove excess fluid from the pleural space to help you breathe easier. Which of the following describes the most appropriate location of needle insertion when performing this procedure at the midclavicular line?

Which of the following nodes would have to be present for a patient to be diagnosed with hilar lymphadenopathy?

Damage to the medial plantar nerve would lead to an inability to use all of the following muscles, EXCEPT:

A patient comes into your clinic experiencing pain in their feet, which are notably flat. When performing a physical exam, you ask them to stand on the balls of their feet. When they do this their rearfoot remains neutral instead of inverting slightly as expected. What would be your recommendation for this patient?

After a long night of stomping on the floor of their second-story Residents apartment, an OMS1 student complains of sudden increased swelling and pain of the foot. After a trip to the doctor, they received the above x-ray. What is the best diagnosis for their condition?

A patient comes into your clinic with a severe ingrown toenail, which is shown below. Which of the following is the proper diagnosis of this condition?

Which of the following is NOT true  regarding intrinsic muscles of the foot?
You are practicing surface anatomy on your good friend Mitsu B. You are palpating the surface just below her patellar tendon on the anterior aspect of her proximal leg. Which of the following bony landmarks should you be able to feel?

Which of the following correctly labels the numbered structures in order?

Which of the following correctly identifies the structure outlined in red?

Cardiac tamponade is a serious medical condition in which blood or fluids fill the pericardial cavity. This places extreme pressure on your heart. In these cases, pericardiocentesis must be performed to relieve the pressure. Which of the following is the correct location for where pericardiocentesis must be performed?

You are on rotations when an attending asks you if you would like to scrub in for surgery involved coronary artery bypass grafting. While in surgery, you ask the surgeon where the transverse pericardial sinus is located. But instead of telling you, the surgeon decides to showing you by slipping his index finger through the sinus. Which of the following best represents where the surgeon’s index finger is located?

Which of the following correctly lists the layers associated with the heart from most superficial to most deep?

A patient presents to the clinic with a painful fever blister on his right toe. The doctor explains that if this continued, it would produce a protective thickening or hardening of the outer epithelium layers known as a callus. The doctor explains to the shadowing resident that this blister arose from one of the epidermal layers, which is a deep, single layer of cells that separates the dermis from the epidermis. Which of the following best describes this layer of cells?

The 5 layers of the epidermis consist of stratified squamous keratinized epithelium consisting of keratinocytes as well as many other cells. Some of the cells give rise to skin color, others are necessary for light touch, and some serve in immune function. These cells that assist in immunity are known as antigen presenting cells, and are made in the bone marrow, and then travel to the epidermis. They leave the epidermis and bind, process, and present antigens to T lymphocytes in the lymph nodes. Which of the following is most likely the cell type being described?

The integumentary system is very essential in preventing water loss from the body, which would cause severe dehydration. One of the epidermal layers of the skin, the stratum granulosum, consists of 2 types of specific granules, each with a very important role. Which of the following is a lipid-rich structure located in the stratum granulosum that makes the epidermis impermeable to water, thus preventing dehydration?

What is the most appropriate diagnosis for someone with a congenital tyrosinase defect resulting in hypopigmentation of the skin?

Identify the structure indicated by the crudely drawn arrow.

After a long white coat weekend filled with family fun and studying, ARCOM students arrive at school Monday morning to find that their beloved coffee maker has been stolen! The security staff suspect an inside job as all of the cameras in the atrium were conveniently sabotaged. Which of the following anatomical features would be most helpful in allowing the security staff to narrow down a list of suspects:

A patient comes to your office with a bladder infection. While performing your routine examination you notice that the patient is unable to sense coarse touch, pressure, and vibrations. You believe that this may be indicative of a defect in their:

Your patient who came in following a myocardial infarction has been scheduled for a triple coronary bypass surgery. Which three coronary arteries are being surgically altered in this procedure?

Your patient comes in with chest pain and there is cause that it may be a heart attack. What vein runs alongside the artery that is most likely to be occluded?

A baby was born with a congenital defect in which its foramen ovale was still open after birth. What defect would this be characterized as?

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the various cells within bone?

A patient presents to your office with a painful swelling of the femur. After taking his history you find he has Paget Disease. You remember to Ms. Heather’s lectures regarding such symptoms and associated disease. What should you do next?

You hear some of your friends talking about the best wrestlers of all time. One of them states that Andre the Giant was a “natural Hulk.” You smirk and politely state that the reason he looked the way he did was not because he was a real live hulk, but rather:

The following photomicrographs shows the three various types of cartilage. Which of the following correctly labels the locations (in order) of the tissue from which these histological samples could have come from?

A patient comes into your clinic who had been previously diagnosed with osteoarthritis. In order to grade the severity of their condition, you decide to take a cartilage biopsy from the patients interphalangeal joints. Upon histological examination, you notice a discontinuity of the surface and loss of small portion of the superficial matrix. The slide that you are viewing is shown below. What stage of osteoarthritis is this patient in?

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the cartilage matrix?

Which of the following correctly identifies the cell specified in the following pictomicrograph?

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