Master BECOM 1 Exam 2 QBank

BECOM 1 Exam 2 (2018)

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Which division of the autonomic nervous system has the shortest postganglionic distance?

In the cold northern winters, you many times will see people out at bars not wearing jackets who claim that they are not cold, is this problematic? Why or Why not?

Angel waddles into class one morning complaining of intense bum soreness that she says is from her CrossFit “workout” the previous evening. This soreness is in part due to the accumulation of lactate. Which of the following best explains the reasoning for why there is an accumulation of lactate during heavy intense exercise?

A patient comes to your office with kidney and liver failure. You suspect that methylmalonic acidemia might be their diagnosis which would mean that they are likely deficient in which of the following enzymes?

Vagal maneuvers involve various techniques of stimulating the vagus nerve (CN X) in order to elicit a specific response in the autonomic nervous system. For example, health care providers may trigger the gag reflex in their patient to stimulate this nerve and provide a therapeutic effect. Which of the following is most likely the intended effect of a vagal maneuver?

After consuming a high carbohydrate meal, your body begins to break down and take in the glucose from the meal and you are considered to be in the fed state. Which of the following occurs ONLY in the liver?

During intensive exercise, skeletal muscle metabolites are released in high amounts into the bloodstream. If unchecked, these metabolites would cause a bottoming out of blood pressure. What mechanism is in place that keeps a check on these products, stabilizing blood pressure?

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by mental confusion, amnesia (a permanent gap in memory), and impaired short-term memory. Which of the following enzymes would have reduced function due to this disorder?

Which of the following is true regarding the conductance velocity of an action potential?

Which enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism works as a tight control point for both the anabolic and catabolic pathways, ensuring that glycolysis and gluconeogenesis are not both active at the same time?

The conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA is regulated by all of the following EXCEPT:

Once a vessel is damaged, platelets start to cling to the injured site and release chemicals that attract more platelets. The platelets continue to pile up and release chemicals until a clot is formed. Blood clotting is an example of:

Alkalosis has a profound effect on neurons. It is most notable in which of the following?

Which of the following enzymes is involved in a reaction unique to gluconeogenesis?

The ganglionic blocking drug hexamethonium, which antagonizes N2 receptors, is administered intravenously. Which of the following would be most likely to be observed in response to administration of this drug?

Cystic Fibrosis is a disease caused by a mutation in which of the following types of channels?

What is TRUE about fructose metabolism?

Damage to the ETC by means of cyanide poisoning would lead to leakage of electrons through which channels?

Which branch of the nervous system is the best at quickly conducting signals to its effectors?

Pig insulin was regularly administered to diabetic patients before the structure of human insulin was discovered. Now that the structure is known, doctors are able to administer the active portion of insulin, while still being able to measure the amount of insulin being produced by the body. Which part of human-secreted insulin is measured?

Alcoholics typically have markedly diminished function of pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase due to decreased dietary absorption of:

Denervation supersensitivity describes that after denervation of a cell, the loss of available neurotransmitter causes the cell to…  

In a neuron where potassium channels are inappropriately opened, what will be the effect on the excitability of the neuron.

A patient comes in with CO poisoning. What can be said about the likelihood (at first) of membrane threshold being reached compared to the normal? 

One of your patients is Type II diabetic. In order to help them increase their insulin sensitivity you recommend more frequent exercise which you expect will:

A patient is diagnosed with hypoxia, which of the following is NOT true about the patient with regard to membrane potentials in B cells of the pancreas?

Stimulants, colloquially referred to as “uppers,” are drugs that increase activity of the central nervous system by eliciting sympathomimetic effects. Which of the following is most likely a symptom of someone who had taken a stimulant?

The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is a crucial process in carbohydrate metabolism which is regulated by the activity of two enzymes. What would you expect to see in a patient with a deficiency in the PDC kinase enzyme?

Which of the following would be a long-term effect of hemolytic anemia?

A patient is excreting high levels of VMA (3-Methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid) in their urine. This would suggest high levels of which neurotransmitter(s)?

Tonic control regulates physiological parameters in an up-down fashion. Match the effects of the neurotransmitter and the correct nervous system with its associated physiological effect.

The autonomic nervous system has many global targets across both sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. Which of the following is dually innervated by both of these divisions?

Ischemic strokes occur when the arteries to your brain become narrowed or blocked, causing severely reduced blood flow. Which of the following best describes how a patient’s ETC would be affected if they were experiencing a stroke?

After consuming glucose, insulin production is turned on, whereas glucagon is turned off. Which of the following is true in the fed state?

Metoprolol is a beta 1 blocker often given to patients with high blood pressure. Patients who are prescribed this medication often stop taking it because of annoying side effects. What other side effect can be contributed to the beta 1 blocking ability of Metoprolol?

Which glycolytic intermediates have sufficient energy to drive the production of ATP via substrate level phosphorylation?

Which part of a K+ channel subunit is primarily responsible for K+ selectivity over Na+?

Caffeine is a potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase.  Considering this, in which of the following might caffeine have a stimulatory effect?

Von Gierke disease, is the most common of the glycogen storage diseases. This genetic disease impairs the ability of the liver to produce free glucose from glycogen and from gluconeogenesis. A deficiency in which of the following enzymes would lead to this disease?

You are doing rotations in the Emergency Department when a 25-year-old female patient is brought in via ambulance. The paramedics tell you that she is in anaphylaxis due to a bee sting. You’re a super smart med student, so you know that anaphylactic shock is associated with systemic vasodilation that causes low blood pressure. Which of the following would be the best course of action in order to fix this associated vasodilation and drop in blood pressure?

How much time does it take for glycogen to be depleted when one is in a basal state?

Orthostatic hypotension occurs when a person’s blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position. It occurs predominantly by delayed constriction of the lower body blood vessels, which is normally required to maintain an adequate blood pressure when changing position to standing. As a result, blood pools in the blood vessels of the legs for a longer period and less is returned to the heart, thereby leading to a reduced cardiac output. This is an example of:

In preparation for board game night, Seth and Ed each brought their favorite snacks to enjoy throughout the night. Shortly after eating all of his doughnuts, Seth was already hungry again. Ed, however, was still feeling quite content after eating his quinoa and mushrooms. What is the likely cause for this discrepancy?

 Following extreme trauma, the body would use which TCA intermediate to replace lost heme?

When there is a bloodborne infection, cells of the immune system produce vast amounts of nitric oxide to destroy the pathogen. This dilates blood vessels and can cause blood pressure to plummet – a condition called septic shock. Which of the following is an additional reason for why an accumulation of NO could be dangerous?

The glycolytic enzyme PFK-1 would have decreased function under which of the following conditions?

Emily is a 62-year-old obese female BP=186/92, resting HR=72 bpm. She is a very sedentary, non-smoker.  You diagnose her with hypertension. As her primary care physician, you prescribe the beta-1 antagonist metoprolol for treatment of her condition. Metoprolol will help lower Emily’s blood pressure through all of the following EXCEPT?

The market for antidepressants and antipsychotics in the pharmaceutical industry is massive, with many drugs targeting the serotonergic synapse. Which of the following would be a viable method for relieving the symptoms of depression at this site?

Gene was recently diagnosed with hypertension and put on enalapril, an ACE inhibitor. He wants to know how it works, so you tell him, in layman's terms:

In someone infected by the Clostridium botulinum bacteria, there is a complete blockade of a key neurotransmitter to the respiratory muscles. By what means does the botulinus toxin produce this fatal effect?

You have been having troubles lately and your OMS1 friend decides to play doctor and suggest that you seek out some natural sources for Serotonin, postulating that this will help you sleep and feel better. Of her suggestions, which one could lead to more serotonin?  

With extreme parasympathetic stimulation present in situations like organophosphate poisoning, you would expect which symptoms to be ABSENT?

Lauren, an OMS I student, is celebrating her outstanding performance on the anatomy exam by hitting the dance floor at the Electric Cowboy (she’s got Flossing down!). She realizes that she forgot to eat dinner, but doesn’t want to leave to grab a meal. She opts to pile on the drinks because, after all, alcohol has carbohydrates and she’ll be satisfied (at least for a little bit). How will her body respond?

You are on rotations in an underserved primary care clinic when you come across a patient who can’t stop talking about the importance of antioxidants. They tell you that they researched it on “the Google machine” and that they know all there is to know about antioxidants. When asked, the patient revealed that they’ve been taking Vitamin E for the past 5 years in order to rid their body of reactant radicals. What should you tell them?

Which of the following is correct in regards to graded potentials and action potentials?

Which of the following is true regarding succinate dehydrogenase?

What unique property of non-alpha tocopherols makes them an essential part of a good diet?

Which of the following is true regarding the organization of the autonomic nervous system?

Glucagon signaling will do which of the following in the target cell?

After determining that your patient has pheochromocytoma, a tumor of the adrenal medulla, you order a urine test expecting elevated levels of metabolites for primarily which small molecule neurotransmitter?

Dr. Moffitt is running yet another ultramarathon. As she approaches mile 20, she decides to reach for her gel packet tucked conveniently within her fanny pack in order to get some energy. The gel packet contains a high amount of Fructose. Which of the following is true regarding Dr. Moffitt’s decision to consume this gel packet?

Which of the following is considered to be the most dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS)?

Ahsan, a mentally exhausted medical student, decided to take a study break and go for a hike at Devil’s Den. He accidentally travelled off the beaten path when he heard some unusual noises coming from the brush. Luckily Ahsan is a highly trained eagle scout and recognized the sounds immediately as the call of a cougar. He sprung into action, boldly running from the noise and flooding his body with adrenaline. Assuming that Ahsan had eaten a meal high in carbohydrates within an hour of this occurrence, which of the following is true?

Which of the following is an example of a positive feedback mechanism?

Patent ductus arteriosus is a heart defect in the pulmonary artery that carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs and the artery that carries oxygen-rich blood to the rest of your body. How would this condition affect the rest of the body in terms of membrane potential?

You are on a pediatrics rotation when a 5-year-old female patient is brought into the clinic by their mother. The patient is severely obese. However, the mother mentions that her daughter’s nutrition is good but she is constantly hungry. What is the next thing you should do?

Which of the following combinations of membrane potential (Vm) and equilibrium potential (Eion) for either a cation or anion would result in an overall decrease in membrane potential if: The channel for the specific anion or cation was open and uninhibited. Concentration differences between the cytosol and EC anion/cation are negligible.
Jenna fell off her bike scraping her knee. This started a cascade of cellular processes: her knee started bleeding, turned red and was painful.  Her broken endothelial cells release cytokines which signal thrombocytes to release more cytokines thus activating additional thrombocytes to clot and stop the bleeding. This is an example of:

Which of the following is an activator of pyruvate kinase in the liver?

As a third year medical student, your resident shows you a patient file showing a confirmed diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease, which is caused by an enzyme mutation in NOX-2. Where is this enzyme located that it would lead to symptoms associated with this condition?

For a combination of reasons, high consumption of alcohol leads to a depletion of which carbohydrate metabolite?

Albuterol is a commonly used beta 2 agonist.  What physiological effect with occur upon treatment with albuterol?

Potassium channels allow for potassium to leave the cell. What prevents sodium from using this channel?
Lethal injections contain potassium chloride which works to stop the heart. Why is this an effective method of euthinasia?

A neuron fires an action potential. From that we know that:

Hemochromatosis is a disease in which too much iron builds up in your body. The fenton reaction explains why this buildup of iron can be so dangerous. Which of the following best describes the Fenton reaction?

Which of the following is occurring at the point in the graph depicted by the red arrow?

An action potential can serve many functions in the body, what are some of the effects of blocking an action potential?

A neuron has a threshold of -45 mV. Resting membrane potential is -60 mV. A depolarization stimulus of 10 mV is applied. What is the effect?

A patient has bloodwork done two hours after consuming a sugary drink. Since consuming the drink, the patient has consumed no other food or beverages. The patient’s blood glucose level is 163 mg/dL. What can be said about the patient?

When there is an increased stimulus, there is an increased frequency in action potential firing. What are some of the effects this could have?

You are doing clinical rotations in the Emergency Department when a patient comes in who had overdosed on Aspirin. Their symptoms include hyperventilation, vomiting, dehydration, double vision, fever, and feeling faint. A resident asks you to explain the reasoning for why this patient is exhibiting a fever. What are you going to tell them?

While epinephrine by nature has a global effect on several sympathetic adrenergic receptors, upon its initial release, to which receptor type with it bind to preferentially?

Which of the following is a anapleurotic reaction that occurs in the TCA cycle?

The X-linked genetic disorder known as Leigh disease presents with mortally high levels of lactic acid in the blood due to a PDH E1 defect. With this disorder, the PDH E1 subunit would most likely display difficulty binding to which essential coenzyme?

Your friend in medical school asks why depolarizing the membrane (such as in a state of acidemia), eventually leads to fewer action potentials. The best answer is: 

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