Master BECOM 1 Exam 2 QBank Published on July 30, 2020 by David Leonard BECOM 1 Exam 2 (2018) Click "Next" to continue Alkalosis has a profound effect on neurons. It is most notable in which of the following? Epilepsy where patients will attempt to blow off CO2, hyperventilate, elevate their blood pH and induce seizures States of diabetic ketoacidosis which lead to coma. States of hypoxia where the low oxygen reduces availability of ATP for the Na/K pumps. Cause the neuron to reverse polarity and send all action potentials back up the dendrites to their origins. B & DWhich branch of the nervous system is the best at quickly conducting signals to its effectors? Autonomic sympathetic adrenergic Autonomic sympathetic cholinergic Somatic motor Autonomic sympathetic muscarinic Autonomic parasympathetic muscarinicAhsan, a mentally exhausted medical student, decided to take a study break and go for a hike at Devil’s Den. He accidentally travelled off the beaten path when he heard some unusual noises coming from the brush. Luckily Ahsan is a highly trained eagle scout and recognized the sounds immediately as the call of a cougar. He sprung into action, boldly running from the noise and flooding his body with adrenaline. Assuming that Ahsan had eaten a meal high in carbohydrates within an hour of this occurrence, which of the following is true? His high BGL would trigger a release of Insulin and the dephosphorylation of Glycogen Synthase by Protein phosphatase. Despite his high BGL, Epinephrine will work in a similar manner to that of Glucagon causing the phosphorylation of Glycogen synthase and Glycogen phosphorylase. Glucagon would be released causing the activation of PKA and the subsequent dephosphorylation of Glycogen synthase and phosphorylase kinase. Epinephrine will activate a similar signaling cascade to that of Insulin, causing an activation of PKB (Akt) and subsequent phosphorylation of Glycogen synthase. Epinephrine will activate a tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathway causing the breakdown of Glycogen.The conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA is regulated by all of the following EXCEPT: FADH2 FADH2 CoASH Acetyl CoA NAD+Caffeine is a potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase. Considering this, in which of the following might caffeine have a stimulatory effect? Presynaptic sympathetic nerve terminals Sweat glands Cardiomyocytes Sympathetic ganglion Vascular smooth muscleThe activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is a crucial process in carbohydrate metabolism which is regulated by the activity of two enzymes. What would you expect to see in a patient with a deficiency in the PDC kinase enzyme? Decreased activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex compared to a person with normal amount of PDC kinase enzyme Increased activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex compared to a person with normal amount of PDC kinase enzyme No change in the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex compared to a person with normal amount of PDC kinase enzyme None of the aboveTonic control regulates physiological parameters in an up-down fashion. Match the effects of the neurotransmitter and the correct nervous system with its associated physiological effect. Increased acetylcholine would be present for the parasympathetic nervous system and cause vasoconstriction and therefore hyperventilation Increased acetylcholine would be present for the sympathetic nervous system and cause vasoconstriction and therefore hypoventilation Decreased norepinephrine for the sympathetic nervous system would cause a decrease in signal rate and therefore blood vessel dilation to cause a decrease in blood pressure Decreased norepinephrine for the sympathetic nervous system would cause a decrease in signal rate and therefore blood vessel dilation to cause an increase in blood pressure Increased norepinephrine for the sympathetic nervous system would cause a decrease in signal rate and therefore blood vessel dilation to cause a decrease in blood pressureAlcoholics typically have markedly diminished function of pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase due to decreased dietary absorption of: Riboflavin Biotin Succinate Thiamine S-adenosyl methionineJenna fell off her bike scraping her knee. This started a cascade of cellular processes: her knee started bleeding, turned red and was painful. Her broken endothelial cells release cytokines which signal thrombocytes to release more cytokines thus activating additional thrombocytes to clot and stop the bleeding. This is an example of: Feedback inhibition Anti-inflammatory response Returning to homeostasis Anticoagulant response Feed-forward activationYou are doing clinical rotations in the Emergency Department when a patient comes in who had overdosed on Aspirin. Their symptoms include hyperventilation, vomiting, dehydration, double vision, fever, and feeling faint. A resident asks you to explain the reasoning for why this patient is exhibiting a fever. What are you going to tell them? The body creates a fever in order to provide a more suitable environment for the enzymes responsible for metabolizing the Aspirin Aspirin activates UCP1 causing thermogenesis and dissipation of heat from brown adipose stores The patient probably has an associated infection. High dose aspirin works as a chemical uncoupler, producing excess heat with the associated energy release The fever due to the body’s immunological response to the overabundance of AspirinOnce a vessel is damaged, platelets start to cling to the injured site and release chemicals that attract more platelets. The platelets continue to pile up and release chemicals until a clot is formed. Blood clotting is an example of: High Gain System Positive Feedback Low Gain System Negative Feedback None of the AboveYou have been having troubles lately and your OMS1 friend decides to play doctor and suggest that you seek out some natural sources for Serotonin, postulating that this will help you sleep and feel better. Of her suggestions, which one could lead to more serotonin? Glutamate that is in MSG and can be gotten at Harps. Tyrosine in a supplement from Walmart. Choline which she swears is sold by the pound at the Farmer’s Market on Saturday. Dopa decarboxylase that is sold on the corner near the riverfront. Tryptophan which is in turkey, they are on sale at Aldi.Which of the following is considered to be the most dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS)? Hydroxide ion Hydroxyl radical Superoxide radical Hydrogen peroxide OxygenYour friend in medical school asks why depolarizing the membrane (such as in a state of acidemia), eventually leads to fewer action potentials. The best answer is: Depolarization makes the cell more permeable to Cl-, which eventually hyperpolarizes the membrane. Depolarization has a boomerang effect and eventually leads to hyperpolarization. Did you hear the one about global warming? It depolarizes! Depolarization causes degradation of K+ channel proteins Depolarization, if prolonged, leads to inactivated Na+ channels.The X-linked genetic disorder known as Leigh disease presents with mortally high levels of lactic acid in the blood due to a PDH E1 defect. With this disorder, the PDH E1 subunit would most likely display difficulty binding to which essential coenzyme? Lipoamide TPP FAD Pantothenate LipoateWhich enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism works as a tight control point for both the anabolic and catabolic pathways, ensuring that glycolysis and gluconeogenesis are not both active at the same time? Phosphoglucomutase PFK-2 Pyruvate carboxylase G-6-Pase FBPase-1Stimulants, colloquially referred to as “uppers,” are drugs that increase activity of the central nervous system by eliciting sympathomimetic effects. Which of the following is most likely a symptom of someone who had taken a stimulant? Reduced blood pressure Decreased heart rate Increased digestion Profuse sweating MiosisYou are doing rotations in the Emergency Department when a 25-year-old female patient is brought in via ambulance. The paramedics tell you that she is in anaphylaxis due to a bee sting. You’re a super smart med student, so you know that anaphylactic shock is associated with systemic vasodilation that causes low blood pressure. Which of the following would be the best course of action in order to fix this associated vasodilation and drop in blood pressure? You should administer a low dose of epinephrine since α-receptors have a higher affinity for Epinephrine than that of ß-receptors You should administer a low dose of epinephrine since α-receptors have a lower affinity for Epinephrine than that of ß-receptors You should administer a high dose of epinephrine since α-receptors have a lower affinity for Epinephrine than that of ß-receptors. You should administer a high dose of Epinephrine since α-receptors have a higher affinity for Epinephrine than that of ß-receptors. You should administer ViagraWhich of the following combinations of membrane potential (Vm) and equilibrium potential (Eion) for either a cation or anion would result in an overall decrease in membrane potential if: The channel for the specific anion or cation was open and uninhibited. Concentration differences between the cytosol and EC anion/cation are negligible. Vm = -90, Eanion = -100 Vm = -90, Ecation = -120 Vm = -90, Eanion = 80 Vm = -70, Ecation = -80 Vm = -70, Eanion = -100In the cold northern winters, you many times will see people out at bars not wearing jackets who claim that they are not cold, is this problematic? Why or Why not? Yes because they feel warm because their body is vasodialating causing heat to leave their skin No, because hoes don’t get cold Yes because their parasympathetic nervous system becomes activated which shunts blood to their core causing them to feel warmer while causing frostbite Yes, because the only reason they don’t feel cold is because they are shivering which causes muscle contractions which will not regulate body temperature No because Northerners have excess brown fat reservesWhile epinephrine by nature has a global effect on several sympathetic adrenergic receptors, upon its initial release, to which receptor type with it bind to preferentially? α2 β1 β3 β2 α1Glucagon signaling will do which of the following in the target cell? Lower 5′-AMP levels Deactivate glycogen phosphorylase-a Increase glucose-1-phosphate levels Activate protein phosphatase-1 Decrease cAMP levelsAlbuterol is a commonly used beta 2 agonist. What physiological effect with occur upon treatment with albuterol? Increased sweat production Decrease in heart rate Constriction of vascular smooth muscle Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase Dilation of bronchiolar smooth muscleA patient is excreting high levels of VMA (3-Methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid) in their urine. This would suggest high levels of which neurotransmitter(s)? Norepinephrine Dopamine A & B A & C EpinephrineWith extreme parasympathetic stimulation present in situations like organophosphate poisoning, you would expect which symptoms to be ABSENT? Extreme salivation Increased cardiac force of contraction Miosis Muscle spasm Defecation Following extreme trauma, the body would use which TCA intermediate to replace lost heme? Succinyl CoA Oxaloacetate Alpha-ketoglutarate Citrate SuccinateIn a neuron where potassium channels are inappropriately opened, what will be the effect on the excitability of the neuron. This will cause a chlorine channel to open and balance out the effect. It will be less excitable due to hyperpolarization. It will be more excitable due to depolarization. It will be unaffected because the Na/K pumps are still working. The potassium channel will reset before any effect can be noticed.Pig insulin was regularly administered to diabetic patients before the structure of human insulin was discovered. Now that the structure is known, doctors are able to administer the active portion of insulin, while still being able to measure the amount of insulin being produced by the body. Which part of human-secreted insulin is measured? Proinsulin A-chain C-peptide Insulin B-chainWhich division of the autonomic nervous system has the shortest postganglionic distance? Parasympathetic muscarinic Sympathetic cholinergic Parasympathetic cholinergic Nicotinic 1 motor plate Sympathetic muscarinicDenervation supersensitivity describes that after denervation of a cell, the loss of available neurotransmitter causes the cell to… Up-regulate receptors, in essence looking for transmitters Regrow the nerves from the cell end Experience necrosis from lack of stimulation Become less sensitive to other nerves that innervate it Learn to respond to different neurotransmittersAfter determining that your patient has pheochromocytoma, a tumor of the adrenal medulla, you order a urine test expecting elevated levels of metabolites for primarily which small molecule neurotransmitter? Epinephrine Nitric oxide Dopamine Acetylcholine NorepinephrineWhich of the following is an activator of pyruvate kinase in the liver? None of the above GTP Alanine ATP Fructose-1,6-PWhich glycolytic intermediates have sufficient energy to drive the production of ATP via substrate level phosphorylation? Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate F1P and pyruvate 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate G6P and dihydroxyacetone phosphate 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvateVagal maneuvers involve various techniques of stimulating the vagus nerve (CN X) in order to elicit a specific response in the autonomic nervous system. For example, health care providers may trigger the gag reflex in their patient to stimulate this nerve and provide a therapeutic effect. Which of the following is most likely the intended effect of a vagal maneuver? Decrease heart rate Decrease gut motility Miosis Increase sweat production BronchodilationWhich of the following is true regarding succinate dehydrogenase? It produces GTP in its reaction of succinate → fumarate It oxidizes NADH → NAD+ It requires Vitamin B7 (Biotin) It is involved in both the ETC and TCA cycle It requires Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)What unique property of non-alpha tocopherols makes them an essential part of a good diet? Collaborative function with ascorbate Its higher concentration in tissues than alphaT Its higher favorability for oxyradicals The ability to neutralize toxic NAPQI Its ability to inhibit COX, 5LOX and RNSWhich part of a K+ channel subunit is primarily responsible for K+ selectivity over Na+? Hyrophospate end P segment S6 (inner helix) S5 (outer helix) Alpha binderWhich of the following enzymes is involved in a reaction unique to gluconeogenesis? Phosphoglyceromutase Phosphoglucose isomerase Phosphoglycerate kinase Phosphofructokinase-1 Pyruvate carboxylaseWhich of the following is true regarding the conductance velocity of an action potential? Myelination decreases capacitance by allowing action potentials to “jump” from node to node, increasing conduction velocity Axons with smaller diameters have increase conduction velocity Myelin decreases conduction velocity by providing insulination for the axon Preganglionic fibers often have a slower conduction velocity as compared to postsynaptic fibers since they are unmyelinated Myelination creates a greater surface area to allow for ion exchange across membranesGene was recently diagnosed with hypertension and put on enalapril, an ACE inhibitor. He wants to know how it works, so you tell him, in layman's terms: It blocks the formation of Renin which then prevents the body from creating a hormone called aldosterone which thus decreases blood pressure It blocks an enzyme that prevents a hormone that tells the body to absorb water thus decreasing blood pressure It blocks a hormone that is secreted from the pituitary gland causing him to absorb water thus decreasing blood pressure It blocks an enzyme that prevents a hormone that tells the body to not absorb water thus decreasing blood pressure It blocks a hormone that is secreted from the pituitary gland causing him to not absorb water thus decreasing blood pressureWernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by mental confusion, amnesia (a permanent gap in memory), and impaired short-term memory. Which of the following enzymes would have reduced function due to this disorder? Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase Pyruvate carboxylase Malonate Dehydrogenase Lactate DehydrogenaseA neuron has a threshold of -45 mV. Resting membrane potential is -60 mV. A depolarization stimulus of 10 mV is applied. What is the effect? An action potential will fire The neuron will hyper-polarize There will be no effect The neuron will depolarize however an action potential will not fire Initially, the neuron will hyperpolarize but then it will depolarizeWhich of the following would be a long-term effect of hemolytic anemia? Increase in 2,3-BPG Increase in erythropoietin Increase in bicarbonate Bohr effect Haldane EffectThe autonomic nervous system has many global targets across both sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. Which of the following is dually innervated by both of these divisions? Kidneys Sweat glands Cardiac muscle Arteriolar smooth muscle Coagulation cascadeOrthostatic hypotension occurs when a person’s blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position. It occurs predominantly by delayed constriction of the lower body blood vessels, which is normally required to maintain an adequate blood pressure when changing position to standing. As a result, blood pools in the blood vessels of the legs for a longer period and less is returned to the heart, thereby leading to a reduced cardiac output. This is an example of: Negative Feedback Positive Feedback None of the Above High Gain System Low Gain SystemHemochromatosis is a disease in which too much iron builds up in your body. The fenton reaction explains why this buildup of iron can be so dangerous. Which of the following best describes the Fenton reaction? Fe2+ can react with free oxygen, producing hydroxide Fe2+ can react with other metals such as Cu+ to produce hydroxide Fe2+ can react with hydrogen peroxide, producing superoxide radicals Fe2+ can react with free oxygen, producing superoxide radicals Fe2+ can react with hydrogen peroxide, producing hydroxyl radicalsA neuron fires an action potential. From that we know that: The neuron received only excitatory inputs. Neurons are magic and they fire when they feel like it. The neuron received only inhibitory inputs. The neuron received enough excitatory inputs to fire an action potential even if inhibitory inputs were received as well. The neuron received a balance of excitatory inputs and inhibitory inputs but that the excitatory inputs were closer to the axon hillock.Which of the following is occurring at the point in the graph depicted by the red arrow? None of the above K+ activation gates are closing Na+ inactivation gates are closed Na+ activation gates are open K+ inactivation gates are openingLauren, an OMS I student, is celebrating her outstanding performance on the anatomy exam by hitting the dance floor at the Electric Cowboy (she’s got Flossing down!). She realizes that she forgot to eat dinner, but doesn’t want to leave to grab a meal. She opts to pile on the drinks because, after all, alcohol has carbohydrates and she’ll be satisfied (at least for a little bit). How will her body respond? Increasing gluconeogenesis NADH levels will decrease but rapidly start increasing Initial hyperglycemia, but soon her body will become hypoglycemic Initial hypoglycemia, but soon her body will become hyperglycemic Lowering the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenaseThe glycolytic enzyme PFK-1 would have decreased function under which of the following conditions? Low concentration of citrate High concentrations of F-2,6-BP High concentrations of ATP High concentrations of AMP Mutation resulting in decreased activity at the ATP effector binding siteA patient is diagnosed with hypoxia, which of the following is NOT true about the patient with regard to membrane potentials in B cells of the pancreas? The membrane is hyperpolarizing Insulin is not being secreted Vm is increasing ATP sensitive K+ channels are open Voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels are openA patient has bloodwork done two hours after consuming a sugary drink. Since consuming the drink, the patient has consumed no other food or beverages. The patient’s blood glucose level is 163 mg/dL. What can be said about the patient? The patient is considered diabetic. The patient is not producing insulin. The patient is not producing insulin. The patient’s results are considered normal. The patient is considered pre-diabetic.After consuming a high carbohydrate meal, your body begins to break down and take in the glucose from the meal and you are considered to be in the fed state. Which of the following occurs ONLY in the liver? Pyruvate kinase activity decreases in response to increased amount of ATP and alanine PFK1 activity decreases in response to an increased amount of ATP & citrate Production and storage of glycogen Hexokinase activity decreases in response to increased amount of G-6-P in the cell Both C and DAs a third year medical student, your resident shows you a patient file showing a confirmed diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease, which is caused by an enzyme mutation in NOX-2. Where is this enzyme located that it would lead to symptoms associated with this condition? Extracellular membrane This is cause by a free enzyme in the cytosol Intracellular phagosome membrane The inner mitochondrial membrane The outer mitochondrial membraneA patient comes to your office with kidney and liver failure. You suspect that methylmalonic acidemia might be their diagnosis which would mean that they are likely deficient in which of the following enzymes? Vitamin B5 Vitamin B12 Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3Von Gierke disease, is the most common of the glycogen storage diseases. This genetic disease impairs the ability of the liver to produce free glucose from glycogen and from gluconeogenesis. A deficiency in which of the following enzymes would lead to this disease? Glucose-6 Phosphatase 2,3-BPG mutase Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency PEPCK PFK-1Which of the following is a anapleurotic reaction that occurs in the TCA cycle? Aspartate → Oxaloacetate Glutamate → citrate Lysine → Succinate Citrate → Fatty Acids Succinyl CoA → HemeThe market for antidepressants and antipsychotics in the pharmaceutical industry is massive, with many drugs targeting the serotonergic synapse. Which of the following would be a viable method for relieving the symptoms of depression at this site? Inhibition of re-uptake by monoamine transporters Consuming a diet low in tryptophan Inhibition of pre-synaptic 5-HT storage Selective deactivation of the 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase enzyme Upregulating the expression of monoamine oxidase (MAO)Dr. Moffitt is running yet another ultramarathon. As she approaches mile 20, she decides to reach for her gel packet tucked conveniently within her fanny pack in order to get some energy. The gel packet contains a high amount of Fructose. Which of the following is true regarding Dr. Moffitt’s decision to consume this gel packet? A glucose-only gel packet would have given her the same amount of energy Fructose will undergo glycolysis without being regulated, therefore her consumption of this sugar will lead to an accumulation of fat which can be burned for energy This is a good choice since Fructose will initiate Gluconeogenesis in the liver It’s obviously a mistake, Fructose will be converted to fat which won’t be burned in time to give Dr. Moffitt energy Since she is undergoing prolonged exercise, Dr. Moffitt is burning ATP at an high rate and therefore can utilize the Fructose without producing an abundance of fatThe ganglionic blocking drug hexamethonium, which antagonizes N2 receptors, is administered intravenously. Which of the following would be most likely to be observed in response to administration of this drug? Tachycardia or bradycardia equally likely, decreased blood pressure Tachycardia or bradycardia equally likely, increased or decreased blood pressure also equally likely Tachycardia, decreased blood pressure Bradycardia, decreased blood pressure Tachycardia, increased blood pressureIn someone infected by the Clostridium botulinum bacteria, there is a complete blockade of a key neurotransmitter to the respiratory muscles. By what means does the botulinus toxin produce this fatal effect? Inhibition at the site of the postsynaptic muscarinic receptors Depletion of acetylcholine at the presynaptic terminal Inhibiting the action of acetylcholine esterase Blocking the release of acetylcholine at the presynaptic terminals Blocking the acetylcholine receptors at the motor platePotassium channels allow for potassium to leave the cell. What prevents sodium from using this channel? Sodiums waters of hydration do not align with the selectivity filter so they do not strip the waters off Potassium is much smaller than sodium so it is able to pass based on size. Sodium is negatively charged so it sticks to the positively charged sides of the channel. Sodium is too small to pass through the channel so it diffuses through without a channel. Sodium does not form waters of hydration so the selectivity filter does not recognize it.How much time does it take for glycogen to be depleted when one is in a basal state? 24-36 hours Glycogen is never depleted since the breakdown of all fuel sources contributes to glycogen stores 12-14 hours 1-2 days 4-5 hoursAn action potential can serve many functions in the body, what are some of the effects of blocking an action potential? Information delivery to the central nervous system Cellular response to allow for muscle contraction and neurotransmitter release The cell will always remain depolarized Blocking in sensory nerves can allow for analgesic effectsDuring intensive exercise, skeletal muscle metabolites are released in high amounts into the bloodstream. If unchecked, these metabolites would cause a bottoming out of blood pressure. What mechanism is in place that keeps a check on these products, stabilizing blood pressure? Parasympathetic stimulation of M2 receptors Sympathetic stimulation of α1 receptors Sympathetic stimulation of β2 receptors Sympathetic stimulation of α2 receptors Sympathetic stimulation of β1 receptorsIschemic strokes occur when the arteries to your brain become narrowed or blocked, causing severely reduced blood flow. Which of the following best describes how a patient’s ETC would be affected if they were experiencing a stroke? The lack of blood flow would directly inhibit the function of Complex I and cause a subsequent release of reactive oxygen species from Complex I The lack of blood flow would directly inhibit the function of Complex II and cause a subsequent release of reactive oxygen species from Complex I and II The lack of blood flow would directly inhibit the function of Complex IV and cause a subsequent release of reactive oxygen species from Complex I and II The lack of blood flow would directly inhibit the function of Complex IV and a subsequent release of reactive oxygen species from Complex I and III The lack of blood flow would directly inhibit the function of Complex III and cause a subsequent release of reactive oxygen species from Complex I and IIIA patient comes in with CO poisoning. What can be said about the likelihood (at first) of membrane threshold being reached compared to the normal? The cell is hyperpolarized, it is less likely to reach threshold. The cell is depolarized, it is less likely to reach threshold. The cell is depolarized, it is more likely to reach threshold. The cell is hyperpolarized, it is more likely to reach threshold.Emily is a 62-year-old obese female BP=186/92, resting HR=72 bpm. She is a very sedentary, non-smoker. You diagnose her with hypertension. As her primary care physician, you prescribe the beta-1 antagonist metoprolol for treatment of her condition. Metoprolol will help lower Emily’s blood pressure through all of the following EXCEPT? Kidney: decreased renin release Heart: decreased heart rate Kidney: decreased water conservation Arterioles: decreased arteriolar vasoconstriction Heart: decreased force of contractionMetoprolol is a beta 1 blocker often given to patients with high blood pressure. Patients who are prescribed this medication often stop taking it because of annoying side effects. What other side effect can be contributed to the beta 1 blocking ability of Metoprolol? Excess sweating Weight gain Rashes Dry Eyes Bronchiolar constrictionWhich of the following is true regarding the organization of the autonomic nervous system? Postganglionic fibers are usually unmyelinated and thus conduct action potentials at a slower rate N2 receptors are located at the neuromuscular junction Sympathetic preganglionic fibers are long, myelinated fibers that synapse with postganglionic fibers extremely close to the target organ Somatic motor neurons have a large diameter, allowing for them to conduct action potentials faster Arteriolar smooth muscle is only innervated by the Parasympathetic nervous systemIn preparation for board game night, Seth and Ed each brought their favorite snacks to enjoy throughout the night. Shortly after eating all of his doughnuts, Seth was already hungry again. Ed, however, was still feeling quite content after eating his quinoa and mushrooms. What is the likely cause for this discrepancy? Seth’s donuts had a high abundance of Fructose, causing glycolysis to occur unchecked and create an abundance of ATP Seth’s doughnuts absorb at a slower rate, so he isn’t getting as much energy from them The fructose content in Ed’s quinoa was converted to fat, which has twice the calories of carbs, it’s simple science. Ed’s quinoa has a high glycemic index, causing a prolonged spike in blood glucose Seth’s doughnuts have a high glycemic index, causing a large, but short spike in blood glucoseLethal injections contain potassium chloride which works to stop the heart. Why is this an effective method of euthinasia? It causes K gates to remain open which means it cannot return to resting membrane potential causing excessive action potentials which shock the heart until it stops working It causes Na gates to remain inactive which means it cannot return to resting membrane potential causing cessation of action potentials making the heart unable to pump It causes K gates to remain open which means it cannot return to resting membrane potential causing cessation of action potentials making the heart unable to pump It causes more potassium to be in the extracellular fluid making it harder for the cell to reach threshold so there is less action potentials being reached and thus the heart stops beating It causes Na gates to remain inactive which means it cannot return to resting membrane potential causing excessive action potentials which shock the heart until it stops workingAngel waddles into class one morning complaining of intense bum soreness that she says is from her CrossFit “workout” the previous evening. This soreness is in part due to the accumulation of lactate. Which of the following best explains the reasoning for why there is an accumulation of lactate during heavy intense exercise? The Ca2+ produced from muscle contraction works to upregulate Lactate DH Pyruvate is being generated at a higher rate than it can enter the TCA cycle Lactate is necessary to perform Gluconeogenesis Lack of oxygen availability The TCA cycle is inhibited by heavy intense exerciseWhen there is a bloodborne infection, cells of the immune system produce vast amounts of nitric oxide to destroy the pathogen. This dilates blood vessels and can cause blood pressure to plummet – a condition called septic shock. Which of the following is an additional reason for why an accumulation of NO could be dangerous? Peroxynitrites (ONOO-) can break down into Nitrogen dioxide radicals (•NO2) and hydroxyl radicals (•OH) B & C Excess amounts of nitric oxide can react with free oxygen radicals forming peroxynitrite (ONOO-) A & C Excess amounts of nitric oxide can react with superoxide radicals forming peroxynitrite (ONOO-)Which of the following is an example of a positive feedback mechanism? Lactate is transported out of muscle tissue so that muscle lactate dehydrogenase can continue to recycle NAD+ against a low product concentration gradient Pyruvate dehydrogenase is inhibited by acetyl-CoA Liver pyruvate kinase activity is up-regulated by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Stretch receptors in the cervix signal the pituitary to release oxytocinDamage to the ETC by means of cyanide poisoning would lead to leakage of electrons through which channels? Complex I and III Complex II Complex I Complex IV Complex IIIYou are on a pediatrics rotation when a 5-year-old female patient is brought into the clinic by their mother. The patient is severely obese. However, the mother mentions that her daughter’s nutrition is good but she is constantly hungry. What is the next thing you should do? Refer them to a nutritionist Test for a Leptin deficiency Test for Type I Diabetes mellitus Test for brain damage within the hypothalamus Test for AMPK deficiencyWhen there is an increased stimulus, there is an increased frequency in action potential firing. What are some of the effects this could have? The neuron will hyper-polarize Increased acetylcholine release in synaptic cleft causing a greater depolarization of cell to cause more frequent firing and greater calcium release Change in amplitude of the action potential Greater neurotransmitter release from axon terminal which causes a greater target response A, C A, BOne of your patients is Type II diabetic. In order to help them increase their insulin sensitivity you recommend more frequent exercise which you expect will: Lead to higher levels of insulin in the body Decrease skeletal muscle utilization of insulin during rest only Promote recruitment of more GLUT4 receptors Increase insulin synthesis by pancreatic beta cells Increase skeletal muscle of utilization of insulin during exercise onlyPatent ductus arteriosus is a heart defect in the pulmonary artery that carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs and the artery that carries oxygen-rich blood to the rest of your body. How would this condition affect the rest of the body in terms of membrane potential? It depolarizes the membrane because there is no Na/K pump action because there is a lack of ATP It hyperpolarizes the membrane because there is an influx of K making it harder to reach threshold It causes the threshold to increase meaning it takes a bigger stimulus and makes it harder for oxygen to be transported throughout the body It would not affect membrane potentials, it would have an effect on hemoglobin binding causing a shift to prefer myoglobin. It repolarizes the membrane before there is an action potential, so the body cannot effectively carry oxygen throughout the bodyYou are on rotations in an underserved primary care clinic when you come across a patient who can’t stop talking about the importance of antioxidants. They tell you that they researched it on “the Google machine” and that they know all there is to know about antioxidants. When asked, the patient revealed that they’ve been taking Vitamin E for the past 5 years in order to rid their body of reactant radicals. What should you tell them? Keep doing what they’re doing, Vitamin E is a great source of alpha-tocopherol which is important in ridding the body of radicals They are mistaken and should actually be taking Vitamin D to get the effect they’re wanting While Vitamin E is a great source of gamma-tocopherol, it doesn’t include the other “non-gamma” tocopherols which are also important in ridding the body of free radicals While Vitamin E is a great source of alpha-tocopherol, it doesn’t include the other “non-alpha” tocopherols which are also important in ridding the body of free radicals Keep doing what they’re doing, Vitamin E is a great source of gamma-tocopherol which is important in ridding the body of radicalsFor a combination of reasons, high consumption of alcohol leads to a depletion of which carbohydrate metabolite? 1,2-bisphosphoglycerate Pyruvate Glycogenin 3-phosphoglycerate OxaloacetateAfter consuming glucose, insulin production is turned on, whereas glucagon is turned off. Which of the following is true in the fed state? Lactate production is increased, resulting in an increase in glycogen synthesis. Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by glucagon to maintain blood glucose levels. Glycogen synthesis is stimulated by insulin and stored in the liver and skeletal muscle. Glycogen synthesis is inhibited by the increase in insulin. Fatty acids are broken down to maintain blood glucose levels.Which of the following is correct in regards to graded potentials and action potentials? AP can be initiated with above threshold graded potentials at axon hillock; GP are initiated in ions through channels GP and AP can both only be depolarized GP only occur with voltage gated ion channels; AP can occur with any type of ion channel Graded potentials (GP) occur in the axon hillock; action potentials (AP) occur in the dendrites/cell bodies AP always have the same strength of signal and have a refractory period that must be obeyed; GP cannot have summationWhat is TRUE about fructose metabolism? Conversion of fructose-1 phosphate to fat is a highly regulated process It’s the most efficient fuel source for ATP Regulation of fructose is accomplished by PFK-2, which converts fructose 1-phosphate into fructose 2,6-bisphosphate Fructose enters glycolysis after the key regulatory step, allowing it to go unchecked and produce an abundance of fat in the liver The relatively high ratio of glucose to fructose in high fructose corn syrup is what makes the substance so bad for youCystic Fibrosis is a disease caused by a mutation in which of the following types of channels? Ligand gated calcium channels Voltage gated chloride channels Voltage gated calcium channels Ligand gated chloride channels Mechanically gated chloride channels87 out of Time is Up!