Cell Death/Differentiation and the

Cell Death/Differentiation and the Molecular Basis of Cancer

After a routine follow-up visit, your patient presents you with information regarding a new stem cell therapy for DM Type I that they saw on Doctor Oz using earlobe cartilage as a stem cell precursor. As a DM Type I patient, they intrigued and clearly fixated on this new therapy as a way to cure their life-long disease. As an osteopathic physician trained in bioethical practices and well-versed in current stem cell literature, you politely inform your patient that:

Which of the following is a difference between necrosis and apoptosis?

A patient comes in complaining of pain in their lower abdomen. Blood tests are ordered and show an increase in white blood cells. A CT scan reveals a tumor in their small intestine. Which of the following enzymes involved in the WNT pathway would you expect to see a mutation in?

A tissue sample from an unknown skin lesion is analyzed microscopically and enzymatically to determine whether or not necrosis has taken place. Which of the following scenarios is indicative of necrosis and not apoptosis?

Following an MI there is an increase in neutrophils that can be seen in tissue samples of myocardial tissue, which of the following explain this?

In order to test the efficacy of a novel drug therapy on diseased cardiomyocytes, you first want to determine if any unwanted side-effects occur in otherwise healthy cardiac cells. Fibroblasts donated to your research clinic from a healthy 30 year old male could be reprogrammed into iPS cells using which of the following combinations of transcription factors?

Mesenchymal cells of the mesoderm are considered to be which of the following?

The inner cell mass is considered to be pluripotent because it can become almost everything necessary to a developing embryo and future human. What is one structure that it can NOT become?

Your patient, a seasoned automotive mechanic, presents to your clinic with an abnormal growth on his forearm that occasionally bleeds and has persisted for the past 6 months. During the intake, he reveals to you that he has never felt the need to wear protective gloves while doing oil changes for the past 30 years. You biopsy the lesion and send it to pathology to rule out basal vs. squamous cell carcinoma. What abnormality in the internal cell death program would indicate that apoptosis has been compromised in this lesion?

A recent discovery by John B Gourdon and Shinya Yamanaka showed that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent using a specific set of transcription factors that are able to upregulate and downregulate thousands of genes depending on their concentrations. Which of the following transcription factors is unable to reprogram cells by regulating epigenetics?

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