BECOM 1 Exam 1 – 2019

Included Content

  • Chemistry Review
  • Overview of Metabolism
  • Proteins
  • Hemoglobin & Myoglobin
  • Enzymes & Enzyme Kinetics
  • Carbohydrates
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Lipids & Lipid Metabolism
  • Biomembranes & Membrane Transport
  • Cell Signaling
  1. A new weight-loss drug has been produced that helps breakdown fats being stored in the lower abdominal region. It works by oxidizing the fats completely into energy. What kind of compound would you expect to see a lot of as its byproduct?
    1. Alkane
    2. Alcohol
    3. Carbon dioxide
    4. Esters
    5. Carboxylic acids
  2. Which of the following is a 4 carbon dicarboxylic acid?
    1. Butyric Acid
    2. Glutaric Acid
    3. Malonic Acid
    4. Succinic Acid
    5. Formic Acid
  3. Sally comes into the office that you are working in claiming that she is having massive headaches, is unable to focus and feels weak like she has the flu. After testing her for the flu, strep, and mono, she tells you that she recently changed her diet and is consuming less than 20 carbs per day. Which compound would you expect to find elevated in her blood?

  4. While rotating with THINK Whole Person Healthcare, you are working as part of a team with a pharmacy intern to make the IV antibiotic that you will administer to your patient. If you are trying to make 500 mL of an IV solution of Clindamycin with a molarity of 2.8 mM, how many milligrams of Clindamycin, MW is 425 g/mol, would you need?
    1. 600mg
    2. 1680mg
    3. 6mg
    4. 500mg
    5. 425mg
  5. Tom is suffering from kidney failure and is unable to store bicarbonate sufficiently. Which state would he be more likely to go into?
    1. Acidosis
    2. Alkalosis
    3. Either
    4. Neither
    5. DKA
  6. When looking at a reaction coordinate diagram (as seen below) what compound is at the apex (C) of the graph?

    1. Reactants
    2. Products
    3. Transition State
    4. Activation Energy
    5. Gibbs Free Energy
  7. When you eat a meal, and precious glucose is taken through glycolysis, it will yield pyruvate. During the conversion pyruvate molecule to Acetyl-SCoA, it will need to be _____ through the _____ of _____.
    1. Oxidized, Reduction, NAD+
    2. Reduced, Oxidation, FADH2
    3. Oxidized, Reduction, FADH
    4. Reduction, Oxidation, NADH
    5. Both A and C
  8. Which of the following reactions would be considered reduction?
    1. Ethanol → Acetaldehyde
    2. Acetaldehyde → Acetic Acid
    3. Formaldehyde → Methanol
    4. Retinol → Retinal 
    5. Retinal → Retinoic Acid
  9. Which of the following linkages CANNOT be broken with a hydrolysis reaction?
    1. Ester linkages
    2. Ether Linkages
    3. Amide Linkages
    4. Phosphoanhydride 
    5. All of the above can be broken with hydrolysis
  10. Which of the following poisons would NOT be expected to disrupt the normal flow of protons through a protein channel of the Electron Transport Chain?
    1. Rotenone
    2. Cyanide
    3. DNP
    4. Carbon Monoxide
    5. Dichlorvos


  11. SAM is being marketed as a dietary supplement (SAMe) showed to help patients with depression. Which of the following would explain how SAMe works?
    1. SAM allows for myelination of neurons which allows for more synapses in the brain to be stimulated at once which then releases endorphins
    2. SAM allows for more neurotransmitters to be made which means there is more dopamine being released
    3. SAM allows for more neurotransmitters to be made which meant there is more Gamma aminobutyric acid being released.
    4. SAM is involved in metabolism, so taking it as a dietary supplement would help patients lose weight which would make them feel better about themselves.
    5. SAM helps to build ATP giving people more energy and thus alleviating the symptoms of depressionSAM is being marketed as a dietary supplement (SAMe) showed to help patients with depression. Which of the following would explain how SAMe works?
  12. A patient comes in with pale skin, complaining of being tired all the time and having blurred vision. During her history she tells you that when she exerts herself, she becomes light headed or dizzy. Blood tests reveal that there is an increased amount of methylmalonic acid. What vitamin deficiency is she exhibiting signs of?
    1. Vitamin B1
    2. Vitamin B3
    3. Vitamin B5
    4. Vitamin B7
    5. Vitamin B12

  13. After an autopsy is performed on a recently deceased 30 year old male hunter and the brain is observed to have multiple holes form in the nervous tissue, almost to a “sponge-like” appearance. Which of the following diseases might this individual have died from?

    1. Ischemic stroke
    2. Hemorrhagic stroke
    3. Alzheimer’s 
    4. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    5. Aneurism
  14. Pycnodysostosis is a bone disorder in which there is no turn over or remodeling of the bones. This disease is caused by a mutation in which family of proteins?
    1. Glycogen synthase
    2. Ubiquitin ligase
    3. Pancreatic protease
    4. Cathepsin
    5. Prion
  15. Suzy has always wanted curly hair because when she curls it, by the end of the day it is stick straight again. This is because it only affects the hydrogen bonds in her hair. She, against the advice of her friends who said “this isn’t the 80’s” decided to get a perm. The reason that a perm stays curly is because it denatures the proteins in the keratin in her hair breaking cysteine bonds. What factor is causing the protein degradation in a perm treatment?
    1. Organic Solvent
    2. Heat
    3. Detergent
    4. Reducing agent
    5. pH


  16. A patient present to the ED after an opioid overdose. Which of the following conditions is it most likely they also present with?
    1. Metabolic Acidosis
    2. Metabolic Alkalosis
    3. Respiratory Acidosis
    4. Respiratory Alkalosis
    5. None of the above
  17. 2,3-BPG would have a similar effect as to which of the following:
    1. Haldane Effect
    2. Bohr Effect
    3. Oxidation/Reduction
    4. Phosphorylation
    5. Increased pH

  18. In Sickle Cell anemia, there is a E6V point mutation. This would cause:
    1. Hydrophobic effects changing conformation of RBC
    2. H-bonding effects changing the conformation of RBC
    3. The hemoglobin molecule to become more negative
    4. The hemoglobin molecule to become more acidic
    5. Both A and C


  19. In biological systems, enzymes are integral in that they ensure chemical reactions happen quickly enough for the system to benefit from it. An enzyme can work to speed up the rate of a reaction by:
    1. Lowering the Activation Energy
    2. Changing the difference in free energy between reactants and products
    3. Straining chemical bonds of the reactants to bring them closer together.
    4. Both A and C
    5. Increasing the enthalpy of the reaction


  20. A new drug is developed that mimics the structure of a transition state produced by an enzyme. This new drug would work best as which type of inhibitor?
    1. Competitive
    2. Non Competitive 
    3. Un Competitive 
    4. Mixed
    5. Suicide
  21. Which of the following is a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor?
    1. Diazinon
    2. Dichlorvos
    3. Pralidoxime
    4. Carbamates
    5. Memantine
  22. Beta-blockers are a class of drugs used to treat abnormal heart rhythms. They work by binding to the receptor sites of adrenaline and noradrenaline on adrenergic beta receptors which is where they get their name. What type of inhibition would beta-blockers utilize?
    1. Competitive
    2. Non-competitive
    3. Uncompetitive
    4. Mixed
    5. Suicide


  23. A patient presents to the ED in an depressed state. They tell you that no one cares about them and no one pays them any attention. In response they down half a bottle of Tylenol and half a bottle of Svedka. Understanding Acetaminophen metabolism, how should you handle this patient?
    1. Give additional EtOH to increase CytP450
    2. Watch and wait as the Acetaminophen should excrete itself in the urine
    3. Call a social worker as this isn’t your area of expertise 
    4. Give them NAC to boost GSH
    5. Give them your cell phone number


  24. Pravastatin is a cholesterol-lowering drug that looks structurally similar to cholesterol. Which of the following graphs would show how pravastatin works?

    1. Panel A
    2. Panel B
    3. Panel C
    4. Panel D


  25. Defectiveness in which GLUT transporter could potentially cause infertility problems in men?
    1. SGLT
    2. GLUT2
    3. GLUT3
    4. GLUT4
    5. GLUT5
  26. Lactase is an enzyme in the brush border cells of the intestinal epithelium that is involved in the breaking down of lactose. This bond is a
    1. α-1,2 bond of glucose and fructose
    2. α-1,2 bond of glucose and galactose
    3. β-1-4 bond of glucose and fructose
    4. β-1-4 bond of glucose and galactose
    5. β-1-4 bond of glucose and glucose


  27. Which of the following carbohydrate polymers is NOT considered a dietary fiber for humans?
    1. Cellulose
    2. Amylopectin
    3. Pectins
    4. Gums
    5. Mucilages
  28. A new cancer drug just hit the market which works by inhibiting Glutamine phosphoriboyl Amido transferase. Why would this be an effective anti-cancer drug?
    1. It would block the biosynthesis of purines which would not allow for DNA to be formed 
    2. It would block the formation of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-amine which would not allow for pyrimidines to be formed and thus no DNA formation
    3. It would not allow for the Pentose Phosphate Pathway to form Ribose-5-Phosphate
    4. It would inhibit the formation FH4 which would prevent dTTPs from forming to be a part of DNA formation
    5. It would block IMP from forming ATP or GTP


  29. Ever since moving his daughter to her dorm, Harry has been suffering with low back pain so he has been popping IBU like candy. He is concerned because he has been feeling dizzy and started having black tarry stools yesterday. Which of the following would explain this?
    1. IBU is an NSAID which works to block 5-LOX which is involved in the inflammatory response
    2. IBU is an NSAID which works to block COX1 which is involved in the inflammatory response
    3. IBU is an NSAID which works to block COX1 which inhibits the protection of the gastric system
    4. IBU is an NSAID which works to block 5-LOX which inhibits the protection of the gastric system
    5. IBU is an NSAID which works to enhance the formation of platelet cells thus causing the bleed


  30. A patient presents to the ED with severe anemia. After checking a urine analysis (UA) you see the patient is excrete large amounts of orotic acid. Which of the following compounds is the patient most likely deficient in?
    1. B12 (Cobalamine)
    2. B9 (Folate)
    3. OMP Decarboxylase
    4. HGPRT
    5. Thioredoxin Reductase

  31. Patients with deficiencies in 7-𝝰-hydrolase would have trouble doing which of the following activities?
    1. Putting full weight on their big toe when walking or running
    2. Fully digesting a double bacon cheeseburger from Five Guys
    3. Getting all of the sugar content out of a pint of ice cream
    4. Defending off a viral infection from a retrovirus
    5. Being able to undergo puberty

  32. Which of the following enzymes is responsible for converting a VLDL into an LDL?
    1. Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) 
    2. Lecithin Cholesterol AcylTransferase (LCAT)
    3. Pancreatic Lipase
    4. 7-𝝰-hydrolase
    5. Cholesterol Esterase

  33. Which of the following is an Omega-3 fatty acid?
    1. Oleic Acid (OA)
    2. Eicosapentanoic Acid (EPA)
    3. Linoleic Acid (LA)
    4. Arachidonic Acid (AA)
    5. Docosapentanoic Acid (DPA)

  34. Montelukast is a medication given to patients who suffer from wheezing and SOB caused by environmental agents. This pill works to block which enzyme?
    1. Cyclooxygenase 1
    2. Cyclooxygenase 2
    3. Lipoxygenase
    4. Phospholipase A1
    5. Phospholipase A2


  35. For fatty acid oxidation, Hormone sensitive lipase needs to be activated by Protein Kinase A in order to separate fatty acids from diacylglycerol. Which enzymes are necessary in order to activate Protein Kinase A?
    1. Adenylyl Cyclase
    2. Phospholipase C
    3. Phospholipase A1
    4. Phospholipase A2
    5. Protein Kinase B (AKT)
  36. A patient comes to you who is having flare-ups of his Rheumatoid Arthritis, despite taking his anti-inflammatories.  He heard that eating more salmon and other seafoods could help with his chronic inflammation. He wants to know how this works. What explanation would you give him?
    1. This is true because seafood is full of Omega-6 fatty acids which produce more prostaglandin anti inflammatories
    2. This is true because seafood is full of Omega-3 fatty acids which produce more prostaglandin anti inflammatories
    3. This is not true because seafood is full of Omega-6 fatty acids which produce more prostaglandin pro inflammatories
    4. This is not true because seafood is full of Omega-3 fatty acids which produce more prostaglandin pro inflammatories
    5. This is not true because seafood is full of Omega-6 fatty acids which produce more leukotrienes pro inflammatories


  37. Which of the following being located on the inner surface of the cell membrane would signal for apoptosis?
    1. Cholesterol
    2. Sphingomyelin
    3. Phosphatidylserine
    4. Phosphatidylethanolamine
    5. Phosphatidylinositol


  38. Which of the following is a disease associated with sphingolipidoses?
    1. Megaloblastic Anemia
    2. Tay-Sachs disease
    3. Lesch-Nyhan Disease
    4. Sickle Cell Anemia
    5. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia 

  39. Disulfide bonds in a transmembrane protein are only found where?
    1. On the intracellular side
    2. On the extracellular side
    3. In the membrane domain
    4. On both the intracellular and extracellular side
    5. Neither on the intracellular or extracellular side

  40. Which of the following types of signaling are produced by the target cell, secreted, and then affect the target cell itself or nearby the cell via a receptor ?
    1. Intracrine
    2. Paracrine
    3. Autocrine
    4. Endocrine
    5. Juxtacrine

  41. Which of the following channelopathies is produced from absent or abnormal channel proteins caused by DNA sequence changes?
    1. Mitochondrial channelopathies
    2. Genetic channelopathies
    3. Autoimmune/toxic channelopathies
    4. Transcriptional channelopathies
    5. Translational channelopathies

  42. Which of the following would make the most effective cancer drug?
    1. One that targets PIP2
    2. One that targets IRS
    3. One that targets Receptor tyrosine kinase
    4. One that targets glycoproteins
    5. One that targets choline


  43. Recently there was a terrorist attack in Japan where the assailants released Sarin, a nerve gas, into the subway system. This caused bronchoconstriction and seizures in the victims due to tectonic muscle contractions. Which of the following explains what happened?
    1. The Sarin binds to the Anionic site of the Acetylcholinesterase causing it to open an ion channel that remains “on” so that the acetylcholine can continuously pass through the channel.
    2. The Sarin binds to the Esteric site of Acetylcholinesterase getting hydrolyzed and causing the acetylcholine to degrade.
    3. The Sarin binds to the Anionic site of Acetylcholinesterase causing it to become inactive as it undergoes conformational change 
    4. The Sarin binds to the Acetylcholine and keeps it from degrading so it continues to send signals to contract
    5. The Sarin binds to the Esteric site of Acetylcholinesterase causing it to lock which means the Acetylcholine keeps firing

  44. Most medical school students have more coffee running through their bodies than any other fluid including blood. Which of the following explains how caffeine is affecting them from a biochemical perspective
    1. More PKB is activated
    2. More calcium is released as a secondary messenger
    3. Degradation of cGMP is inhibited
    4. Phosphodiesterase is inhibited
    5. The caffeine binds a receptor that increases release of cAMP


  45. Philadelphia chromosome 22 is an example of which of the following chromosomal abnormalities?
    1. Insertion
    2. Deletion
    3. Translocation
    4. Inversion
    5. Substitution